Galileo yashinjwe na Kiliziya kuyobya abantu ko Isi izenguruka izuba – UMUSEKE

Galileo yashinjwe na Kiliziya kuyobya abantu ko Isi izenguruka izuba

Tariki ya 12,Mata, 1633, mu ngoro yitiriwe Saint Office i Roma, umusaza w’imyaka 70 witwaga Galileo Galilei yari yatumijwe mu rukiko rwa Kiliziya Gatulika bitaga Inquisition. Yashinjwaga ko yigisha ko Isi izenguruka izuba kandi ibyo byari bihabanye n’ibyo bemeraga ko Bibiliya yigisha.

Galileo Galilei wari umuhanga mu bijyanye n’isanzure yaburanishijwe na Kiliziya kubera guhakana ikinyoma cyayoboraga Isi

Muri Yosuwa 10: 13 haranditse hati: “Nuko izuba n’ukwezi birahagarara, kugeza igihe iryo shyanga ryamariye guhora inzigo abanzi baryo. Mbese ibyo ntibyanditswe mu gitabo cya Yashari? Nuko izuba rihagarara mu kirere rwagati ntiryarenga, rimara hafi umunsi wose.”

Ikirego yaregwaga cyavugaga ko yadukanye ibitekerezo byari bikubiye mu gitabo yise Dialogue sur les deux principaux systemes du monde byemezaga ko izuba ari ryo riri hagati mu isanzure ibintu biyega (inyenyeri, n’imibumbe) bikarizenguruka.

Abayobozi ba Kilizia Gatulika muri icyo gihe bahakanaga ibyo Galileo yanditse, bakavuga ko ari amafuti agamije guhinyura Ibyanditswe Byera no kunyuranya n’amahame ya Kiliziya.

Ku bacamanza byari ikirego kiremereye cyashoboraga guhanishwa igihano cy’urupfu.

Uburemere bw’ikirego ntibwari bushingiye gusa ku kuba yarahakanaga ibyari bisanzwe byemewe icyo gihe byavugwaga ko bishingiye kuri Bibiliya, ahubwo bwari bushingiye no ku ngingo iremereye kurushaho yavugaga ko ahakana imiterere y’isanzure kandi ari ko Imana yayihanze.

Abahanga  bo mu Bugereki ba kera nka Ptolémée na Aristote bari baranditse ibitabo byubahwaga cyane muri kiriya gihe bisobanura ko isi ari yo iri rwagati mu isanzure bityo ibindi byose bikayizenguruka.

Ibitekerezo bya bariya bahanga ariko cyane cyane ibya Aristote byasobanuraga ko isi iri rwagati mu isanzure ibyo bita géocentrisme, ibi kandi Aristote yemezaga ko ari ihame ryashinzwe n’Imana kandi rizahoraho kugeza Isi irangiye.

Muri 1543 umuhanga wo muri Pologne witwa Nicolas Copernic yaje kwandika inyandiko ivuguruza ibitekerezo bya Aristote, avuga ko Isi na yo izenguruka izuba ariko ntiyemerwa.

Copernic nubwo atakurikiranywe cyane mu gihe cye, inyandiko ye yabaye intangiriro ku bahanga biga ibyo mu kirere batangira kwibaza ishingiro ry’ibyo Aristote yanditse.

Muri 1609 Galileo yari ufite imyaka 45 y’amavuko kandi yigishaga imibare, ubwubatsi (architecture), ubukanishi n’ubumenyi mu by’ikirere muri Kaminuza ya Padoue.

Icyo gihe nibwo yakoze icyuma cyamufashije kureba mu kirere akabona uko giteye kurusha uko abandi bose bamubanjirije babibonye cyangwa babikekaga.

Igitekerezo cyo gukora kiriya cyuma cyamujemo mbere gato ubwo yarebaga mu kirere akaza kubona ko hari imwe mu nyenyeri ‘yavutse’, akayita Nova.

Ubusanzwe abahanga bavugaga ko nta kintu gishya gishobora kwiyongera mu bisanzwe mu kirere.

Ibi byamuteye amatsiko atangira gukora icyuma cyazamufasha kureba mu kirere kurushaho akamenya imiterere nyakuri yacyo.

Akoresheje icyuma cye, umuhanga Galileo yabashije kubona bwa mbere imibumbe igaragiye kandi izenguruka Jupiter.  Ibi na none byanyomoje ibyo abahanga bemeraga ko izuba n’ukwezi ari byo biyega gusa mu kirere.

Yaje kandi kubona ko ibyavugwaga ko izuba ritagira icyasha ari ukwibeshya kuko yabonye ko rifite imihiro (rings).

Amaze kubona ibyo byose,  Galileo yagiye kuganira na Kiliziya Gatulika ngo ayereke ko ibyo abantu bemeza ko bigize imikorere y’ikirere ari ukwibeshya, ko hari ibindi yavumbuye kandi bishingiye ku bintu bigaragarira amaso.

Muri icyo gihe hari hashize igihe gito agizwe umunyamibare n’umufilozofe ugira inama umutegetsi wo mu gace ka Toscane, mu Ntara ya Florence.

Muri 1611 yagiye i Roma yitwaje icyuma yarebesheje mu kirere ngo acyifashishe yereka abakuru ba Kiliziya ibyo yabonye.

Agezeyo yabanje kwakirwa neza n’abahanga b’i Roma ariko aba Yezuwiti bo mu ishuri rikuru rya Roma bitaga Collegio Romano banga kwemera ibyo avuga.

Galileo yagize amahirwe ategwa amatwi na Cardinal Maffeo Barberini ari we waje kuzaba Papa Urbain VIII.

Igitabo kitwa Les Grands Procès de l’Histoire ku ipaji ya 257 kivuga ko abahanga b’i Roma n’abapadiri benshi banze kwemera umwanzuro wa Galileo ko isi izenguruka izuba.

Bashingiraga ku ngingo y’uko nibiramuka byemejwe ko igitekerezo cya Copernic gifite ishingiro rya science bizatuma hari imirongo n’ibice bya Bibiliya bitakaza ubusobanuro byari bisanganywe.

Kuri iyi ngingo Galileo yasubije ko ubusanzwe Bibiliya atari igitabo gisobanura imiterere y’isanzure.

N’inseko ituje yagize ati: “Ubusanzwe Bibiliya itwigisha uburyo tuzajya mu ijuru ariko ntitwigisha uburyo ijuru rigenda.”

Muri 1616 igitabo cya Copernic cyakuwe ku rutonde rw’ibitabo byemewe. Iki cyemezo cyari kigamije guha gasopo abandi bahanga.

Nyuma y’igihe gito Cardinal Bellarmin yabwiye Galileo mu buryo butaziguye ko atagomba kuzongera kwigisha ko Isi izenguruka izuba, ko agomba kuzibukira inyigisho za Copernic.

Galileo yabanje kubaha itegeko rya Kiliziya, amara imyaka myinshi acecetse akora ubushakashatsi ku bindi bintu.

Kwemera guceceka ibihe byose kandi azi ukuri byamwanze mu nda ahubwo yegera Papa Urbain VIII amusaba uruhushya rwo kwandika igitabo yise Le Dialogue sur les deux principaux systèmes du monde. Icyo gihe hari muri 1624.

Igitekerezo amaze kukigeza kuri Papa yaracyemeye ariko amusaba kuzubahiriza ingingo imwe rukumbi: kwandika yerekana icyo Bibiliya yigisha kuri iyi ngingo no gusobanura ibyo yabonye ariko akirinda kwerekana uko we nk’umuhanga abyemera.

Galileo yarabyemeye atangira akazi ko kwandika. Muri Gashyantare 1632 igitabo cyari kimaze kuzura, cyasohokeye ahitwa Leyde mu Buholandi.

Ni igitabo cya Galileo cyakunzwe cyane ariko bamwe mu bakuru ba Kiliziya batangira kukirwanya ariko bagahura n’imbogamizi y’uko yari yaremerewe ku cyandika na Papa Urbain VIII.

Kuba mu Burayi bwose cyarafashwe nk’ikizanye impinduramatwara muri science ivuguruza ibyari bisanzwe byemerwa muri Kiliziya byatumye gitangira kurwanywa.

Impamvu Kiliziya yatangaga harimo iy’uko cyari cyanditswe mu Gitaliyani, ururimi abakuru ba Kiliziya bavugaga ko ari urwa rubanda rwa giseseka, bityo kikaba cyari busomwe n’abantu benshi mu Burayi bwose.

Ikindi cyarakaje abakuru ba Kiliziya ni uburyo cyari cyanditswemo burimo gutebya no kuninura kandi bikagaragara ko ashaka gushyigikira ibitekerezo bya Nicolas Copernic.

Taliki ya 1, Ukwakira, 1632 nibwo Galileo yabonye urwandiko rumusaba kuzitaba Urukiko rwa Kiliziya rwari i Roma.

Icyo gihe yabanje gusa n’utinza itangira ry’urubanza, avuga ko arwaye kandi ko afite impungenge z’uko mu rugendo ruva iwe (Florence) rugana i Roma yazahandurira indwara ya Peste yari yarayogoje U Butaliyani.

Kubera igitutu yaje kwemera ajya kwitaba urukiko.

Cya gitabo twavuze haruguru kivuga ko agezeyo yangiwe kwisobanura ahubwo asabwa kwemera ko ibyo yanditse ari amafuti. Icyo gihe urukiko rwari ruyobowe na Cardinal Vincenzo Maculano de Firenzuola.

Umucamanza Vincenzo yabanje kubaza Galileo ati: “Mwaba muzi impamvu mwatumijwe kwitaba mu rukiko i Roma?”

Galileo ati: “Ndakeka ko mushaka ko ngira ibyo nsobanura ku gitabo cyanjye.”

Mu by’ukuri icyo abacamanza bashaka kumenya ni icyamuteye kurenga ku mabwiriza yari yarahawe na Kiliziya binyuze mu iteka rya Cardinal Bellarmin ry’uko atagomba gukomeza kwigisha ibitekerezo bishingiye ku gitabo cya Copernic cyari cyaravanywe ku rutonde rw’ibitabo byemewe i Burayi.

Kuri iyi ngingo Galileo yisobanuye agira ati: “Muri 1616 naje i Roma mu buryo buntunguye. Mpageze naganiriye na bamwe mu ba Karidinali barimo Bellarmin bifuzaga kumenya byinshi ku byo navumbuye.”

Umucamanza  Maculano  ati: “Icyo gihe se mwageze ku wuhe mwanzuro?”

Galileo abanza gutuza kuko yumvaga aho biganisha!

Nyuma ati: “Naje kumva ko Cardinal Bellarmin yamenyeshaga ko ibyo Copernic yanditse byari bihabanye n’Ibyanditswe Byera, ko byari ibintu yitekerereje gusa bidafite ishingiro.”

Maculano ati: “Ese ntabwo yaba yarababujije kubyigishiriza mu ruhame?”

Galileo arasubiza ati: “Sinibuka neza niba ibyo yaba yarabimburije imbere y’abandi ba Karidinali gusa birashoboka ko yaba yarakoresheje amagambo ngo: “Kutongera kwigisha…mu buryo ubwo aribwo bwose.”

Maculano abaza Galileo uwamuhaye uburenganzira bwo kurenga ku iteka rya Cardinal Bellarmin akandika kiriya gitabo.

Kugeza aha ikibazo cyari cyatangiye gukomerana Galileo.  Igitabo yari yaracyanditse ahawe uburenganzira na Papa Urbain VIII ariko mu kucyandika ashyiramo ibintu byinshi atari yaremeranyijweho na Papa.

Uko bigaragara Galileo yanze kwandika ibintu bififitse kandi azi neza ukuri, afata icyemezo yari azi neza ko kizamukururira ibibazo.

Uyu mukambwe mbere yari yaragize amakenga ashyira igitabo cye i Roma ngo barebe niba aho yari agejeje acyandika hari ibyo bari bukuremo. Icyo gihe hari muri 1629.

Agazeyo barasomye ndetse bamwemerera gukomereza aho ariko akabanza akabaha kopi imwe kugira ngo bayibike izabafashe kureba niba ikizasohoka nyuma kizaba gihuje n’ibyanditse mu cyo yabahaye mbere. Ibi yarabyemeye arabikora arangije asubira iwe.

Yandikiye ab’i Roma ko kubera uburwayi n’ikibazo cy’indwara yari mu Butaliyani, bitari kuzamushobokera kugaruka i Roma kubereka inyandiko ya nyuma y’igitabo, ko byaba byiza hatoranyijwe undi muntu uturanye na Galileo mu Ntara ya Florence wazagisoma akazashyira i Roma kopi ya nyuma.

Aya yari amayeri ya Galileo.  Uyu muhanga wari ugeze mu zabukuru yahisemo ko kopi ya nyuma y’igitabo  yazasomwa na Padiri Giacinto Stefani wari umwe mu bakuru muri Kiliziya Gatulika mu gace ka Florence ariko akaba n’inshuti bwite ya Galileo.

Mu gihe Roma itari yasubiza ku cyifuzo cya Galileo, uyu yari yarangije gusohora igitabo cyuzuye agiha Padiri Giacinto ngo agisome azagishyikirize abacamanza b’i Florence bakemeze.

Yari yizeye ko aba bari bugishime. Nyuma agiha undi muyobozi wa Kiliziya witwaga Nicolo de l’Antella ngo agisome yitonze. Uyu akirangije ni we watanze ibwiriza ko gisohorwa bwa nyuma kikajya ku mugaragaro.

Ikosa ni uko abakuru ba Kiliziya  y’i Florence batari bafite uburenganzira bwo gutegeka ko igitabo kivuga ibintu nka biriya gisohorwa bitemejwe n’ab’i Roma.

Ubwo yari mu rukiko abazwa niba yaranditse igitabo cye nk’uko yari yabyemeranyijwe na Papa Urban VIII, Galileo yagize ati: “Nta kintu nabimubwiyeho na kimwe kuko mu gitabo cyanjye sinigeze nemeza ko Isi izenguruka izuba. Ikindi kandi nerekanye ko ibyo Copernic avuga bihabanye n’ukuri.”

Ibi byarakaje abari bagize inteko iburanisha kuko byaberetse ko Galileo abagize ibicucu bitasomye kiriya gitabo.

Ubwo yongeraga kwitaba urukiko taliki ya 30 Mata, Galileo yaje kwemera ko yaba yararengereye ubwo yandikaga kiriya gitabo.

Yagize ati: “Ubwo nongeraga gusoma igitabo cyanjye naje gusanga bishoboka ko hari ahantu naba naracitswe nandika ibintu bishobora kwereka umusomyi ko nasuzuguye amabwiriza ya Kiliziya kandi wenda bikaba byamwereka ko amahame nashakaga gusenya nari nayibeshyeho.”

Iki gisubizo cyabaye nk’ikinyuze abagize inteko iburanisha. Gusa kugeza hariya umusaza Galileo yari atarerura ngo yemeze ko ibitekerezo bya Copernic ari ibinyoma.

Ku italiki ya 21 Kamena yitabye bwa nyuma urukiko ahageze abwirwa ko iyi ari inshuro ya nyuma kandi ikomeye, ko agomba kwitondera ibyo avuga kandi ko nakomeza gukinisha urukiko ashobora guhanishwa gukorerwa iyicarubozo.

Ahageze yarohereje urukiko. Urukiko ruramubaza ruti: “Ushinjwa amaze igihe kingana gute yemeza ko izuba ari ryo rizengurukwaho n’isi, ko isi atari yo iri hagati mu isanzure?”

Galileo: “Hashize igihe kirekire. Ndetse na mbere y’uko mumbuza kubyigisha nari maze igihe kirekire mbyigisha abanyeshuri n’abandi bashakaga kubimenyaho amakuru arambuye.

Ariko guhera muri 1616 naje kubona ko ibyo Kiliziya yavugaga byari bifite ishingiro mpita nzibukira kongera kwigisha iby’uko izuba riri rwagati rikazengurukwaho n’ibindi byose biri mu kirere harimo n’Isi.”

Urukiko: “Oya witurimanganya biragaragara ko igitabo cyawe gishyigikiye ibitekerezo bya Copernic”

Galileo:  “Sibyo rwose! Sinigeze nandika nemeza ko ibitekerezo bya Copernic ari  ukuri. Icyo nakoze ni ukwerekana ko ari ngombwa kubwira abaturage uko ibintu biteye mu kirere hifashishijwe amategeko agenga ikirere.

Nagerageje kwerekana ko haba ibya Copernic cyangwa ibyanditswe muri Bibiliya byose bigomba gushingira ku bumenyi bw’ibigaragara mu kirere.”

Iki gisubizo cyatangaje urukiko.  Urukiko rwamumenyeshije ko kubera uburiganya bwe rugiye kumufatira imyanzuro itajenjetse kandi muri yo harimo gukoresha iyicarubozo.

Amaze kubyumva yagize ati: “Naje hano nje kumvira amabwiriza yanyu. Ariko ndemeranya n’umutimanama wanjye ko ntigeze ndenga ku mabwiriza mwampaye.”

Urukiko rwanzuye ko Galileo agomba guhitamo kimwe mu bintu bibiri: Kwemeza ko ibitekerezo bya Copernic ari ukuri akabihanirwa yicwa, cyangwa akarahira agahakana ukuri kwabyo hanyuma agasinyira inyandiko ye, ko atazongera kwigisha iby’uko izuba ritagenda ahubwo hagenda Isi n’ibindi.

Umusaza mu ijwi rituje imbere y’abantu bari buzuye inzu y’uburanisha yagize ati: “Nemeje ko ntazongera kwigisha ibya Copernic mu buryo ubwo aribwo bwose kandi nemeje ko ibyo yigishije bihabanye n’Ibyanditswe Byera.”

Ayo niyo magambo ya nyuma yavugiye mu ruhame. Galileo yatashye iwe afungishwa ijisho kugeza ubwo yitabaga Imana azize uburwayi n’ubuhumyi icyo gihe hari muri 1642 afite imyaka 78 y’amavuko.

Muri make abahanga ba Kiliziya Gatulika bashyize igitutu ku muhanga ngo ahakane ubumenyi yari yarahawe n’ubushakashatsi babitewe n’ubujiji bari bafite kuri Science ahubwo bakita ku Byanditswe Byera na byo batari basobanukiwe neza.

Ubusanzwe iyo umuntu ari ku Isi akareba ukwezi abona kugenda kandi kubera ko umuntu aba ari ku Isi igenda ashobora kubona ko ibiri hejuru ari byo bigenda kuko urugendo isi iba iri gukora we aba atarwumva bitewe n’uko afite umubyimba muto ugereranyije n’uw’Isi.

Jean Pierre NIZEYIMANA
UMUSEKE.RW

2 Comments

  1. CYEMAYIRE Joseph

    09/08/2017 at 3:12 pm

    AMADINI yigisha ibintu byinshi binyuranye na BIBLE.Urugero,kuva mu kinyejana cya 3 nyuma ya YESU,amadini yigisha ko hariho imana data,imana mwana n’imana mwuka wera,bakabyita UBUTATU.Nyamara nta hantu na hamwe Bible yigisha ko imana ari UBUTATU.
    YESU ubwe,yigishaga ko imana imuruta (Yohana 14:28).Akayisenga ndetse ayinginga,arira (Abaheburayo 5:7).Abigishwa be,nta narimwe bigishaga ko imana ari ubutatu.Petero yigishaga ko YESU ari UMUGARAGU w’imana (Ibyakozwe 3:13).PAWULO nawe yigishaga ko YESU ari IKIREMWA cya mbere cy’imana,the first born of all creatures (Abakolosayi 1:15).
    Imana ntishobora gupfa.Nyamara YESU yarapfuye.Iyo imana yitwa YEHOVA itabishaka,ntabwo yali kumuzura.YESU ntabwo yari gushobora kwizura.YESU ubwe,yatubujije kumusenga.Nyamara amadini asenga YESU,aho gusenga SE wenyine nkuko YESU yadusabye muli Matayo 4:10.Imana ni Chef wa YESU (1 Abakorinto 11:3).
    Aho gupfa kwemera IBINYOMA by’amadini,mujye mwiga BIBLE neza.
    Mwese muzi ikinyoma kivuga ko PAPA (the Pope) atajya yibeshya.Muzi ikinyoma kivuga ko iyo dupfuye tuba twitabye imana,etc…Bible idusaba kuva mu madini y’ikinyoma.
    Ngo nitwanga kuyavamo,izaturimburana nayo ku munsi w’imperuka (Revelations 18:4).

  2. Gatare Peter

    10/08/2017 at 11:42 am

    Ndemeranya nawe Joseph! Ahubwo abanyamadini bakera wenda umuntu yabababarira kuko ubushakashatsi bwabo n’ubwo bwari “scientific”; ntabwo bari bafite “ubumenyi shuri” nka abubu.
    Igitangaza nuko ubu dufite abanyamadini benshi bahimbahimba bakavuga ko Imana yabatumye gukiza abayoboke/abantu bayo- bityo bakajijisha ngo bavuye ibirema, abatabona, ababuze urubyaro n’abagabo etc “mu izina rya Yesu/Yezu”! Ngire ngo ujya ubona/ wumva uwitwa Rugagi, Ntambara n’abandi. Imbaga ya’abantu bamwe; ariko benshi barabayoboka “bagakira” da!

    Ntabwo mvuze ko abo bavuga butumwa atari injijuke; ariko ntibakayobye abandi bantu nabo “bajijutse” ngo Imana yabatumye! Koko?! Imana yaremye abantu mu ishusho yayo kandi ibakunda kimwe. Uyobyo ifite ububasha bwo kumuyobora itagombye gutuma kuko igerahose, ikaba: Omnipresent, Omnipotent & Omnipotence! Aba Pasteri n’aba Padiri, ba Bishop na ba Monseigneur bafite akazi ko kurwnya ibyaduka by’ Amadini kabisa!

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