Menya indwara zirenga 200 Abanyarwanda bo ha mbere bavuraga – UMUSEKE

Menya indwara zirenga 200 Abanyarwanda bo ha mbere bavuraga

Abanyarwanda bo hambere nabo bararwaraga kandi bakivura/za, umuhanga witwa A. Lestrade yabaruye indwara zigera kuri 234. Zimwe n’ubu abanyarwanda baracyazirwara nk’indwara zo mu nda (impiswi, impatwe, inzoka…) n’izindi bakazivura, kakaba n’izindi zitakiboneka cyane nk’ubushita, ibibembe n’izindi.

Lestrade ubwo yaganiraga n’umwe mu bavuzi ba gakondo witwaga Budendeli

Mu gitabo yise La Médecine Indigène au Ruanda, A. Lestrade yavuze ko yageze mu Rwanda muri 1921. Nyuma gato yatangiye ubushakashatsi bwo kumenya indwara Abanyarwanda barwaraga, uko bazivuzaga n’uko birindaga ko ababo bakongera kuzirwara.

Yageze mu bice by’u Rwanda rw’icyo gihe nko muri Rukoma, Nduga, Busanza, Nyantango, Bwishaza, Buganza na Gisaka akora ubushakashatsi ku ndwara n’uko bazivuzaga.

Mu gitabo gifite pages zirenga 270 Lestrade asobanura buri ndwara muri 234 yabakusanyije akavuga uko zanduraga (ku ndwara zandura), uko abanyarwanda bazivuraga n’imihango yaherekezaga imiti runaka kugira ngo ikore.

Indwara nyinshi zaterwaga n’umwanda. Indwara z’amenyo, amacinya n’impiswi nizo zaterwaga n’umwanda.

Amacinya yari yaribasiye igice cyo mu Rukiga nk’uko Lestrade yabyanditse, akavuga ko byaterwaga n’uko abantu b’aho batagira umuco wo gukaraba intoki.

Ikindi yasanze cyakururiraga abanyarwanda ba kera indwara harimo imirire mibi. Kurya bararyaga bagahaga ariko nta ntungamubiri zitandukanye baryaga.

Mu kwivura bakoreshaga ibimera cyangwa inyama zo mu nda z’inyamaswa runaka nk’inkoko, intama, ingwe,, impereryi n’izindi.

Umuseke warebye muri kiriya gitabo cya Lestrade ukusanya zimwe mu ndwara abanyarwanda barwaraga.

Indwara z’amenyo

Mu ndwara z’amenyo harimo izafata ishinya ndetse n’amenyo nyirizina. Uretse gukoresha agati babaga babaje mu migano, nta bundi buryo abanyarwanda bozaga amenyo.

Indwara z’amenyo ntibazifatanaga uburemere cyane nka malaria, ibibembe n’izindi.

Iyo umuntu yarwaraga iryinyo ryaracukuritse bafataga umuravumba bakawushyira mu ryinyo kugira ngo ugabanye ububabare.

Mu gukura umwanda mu menyo ababaga badafite umwanya n’uburyo bwo gutunganya uduti tw’imigano bakoreshaga urwara babaga barateretse rugakura rw’urutoki rwa mukubitarukoko rukaba ariryo bakuza umwanda mu menyo.

Abanyarwanda bo hambere kandi babonaga umwana wabo ameze amenyo imburagihe cyangwa akaza ari impingikirane, bajyaga kubaza umuhannyi kuko bakekaga ko ari umuvumo w’abakurambere.

Impatwe:

Iyi ndwara ntiyakundaga kugaragara cyane mu banyarwanda.

Uwayirwaraga bamuhaga amazi bakamuye mu bibabi bibisi by’itabi avanze n’ibibabi by’igiti bitaga umugabagaba.

Uyu muti umurwayi yawunywaga mu bihe bitandukanye by’umunsi kugeza munda harekuye akituma neza.

Impiswi:

Umunyarwanda warwaraga impiswi nk’uko Lestrade yabyanditse bamuhaga imvange y’amata y’ikivuguto n’umutobe bavanye mu bibabi by’igiti cy’ishoza.

Bavangagamo kandi umutsima w’amasaka wa rucikibo umuntu agafuma.

Hari n’abo bahaga ibitoki bitatu cyangwa bine bibisi bitonoye bavumbitse mu ivu akabihekenya bikamufumisha munda hakongera hagakomera.

Amacinya:

Ubusanzwe umuntu urwaye amacinya yituma ibirimo n’amaraso.  Igitabo La Medicine Indigène au Ruanda kivuga ko igice cyo mu Rukiga aricyo cyari cyarazahajwe n’iyi ndwara.

Ibi ngo byaterwaga n’uko abo mu Rukiga bari bafite ingeso yo kurya badakarabye nk’abana. Ibi ngo bikatuma barya umwanda ukabije amacinya akabashokamo ndetse akanabica.

Mu buryo butangaza abaganga bo muri iki gihe ni ukumenya ko abanyarwanda ba kera bahaga umurwayi bituma ibyo afite mu nda bishiramo bakamuha imiti agatangira bushya.

Amacinya ngo bayavuzaga ifu y’intagarasoryo baseye bakongeramo umunyu wa gikukuru, iyi mvange bakayivanga mu mutsima wa rukacarara bagaha umurwayi.

Ibibwa:

Ibibwa byavurwaga n’umuti ukozwe mu cyatsi bitaga umusununu.

Inzibyi:

Umunyarwanda warwaraga inzibyi bafataga agati gato baciye ku giti cya siteriya bakakinjiza mu gisebe akanya gato ubundi bakagakuramo bakagasubiza kuri cya giti kavuyemo bakazirikaho bakaba bizeye ko uko kari byume ari nako inzibyi nayo iri byume igakira.

Ibibembe:

Ibibembe biri mu ndwara abanyarwanda batinyaga kurusha izindi. Impamvu yatumaga bayitinya ni uko uwabaga ayirwaye yahabwaga akato ngo atanduza abandi. Umurwayi w’ibibembe yavurwaga mu buryo bwinshi bitewe n’aho uburwayi bugeze.

Hari umuti wabaga ukozwe mu biti bitandukanye nk’icyo bitaga ngingwijana(ingingo ijana), umuharakuko,  umugombe, umuyobora, umutanga, ishyoza, umukuzanyana, umuhengeri, ikirogora, bugangabukari, umusara n’umusororo.

Mu rwego rwo kwirinda abana ababyeyi kuzabyara abana bashobora kuzarwara ibibembe, bigasa no kubakingira, ababyeyi baryaga ibiryo birimo ibumba cyangwa se bakarirwa ryonyine.

Iri bumba kandi ryabarindaga kuzarwara ‘syphilis’.

Iyo umubembe yangaga gukira agapfa bamushyiraga mu kirago bakamujugunya kure y’aho abantu batuye nko mu bihuru, ubuvumo cyangwa mu bishanga byitaruye abaturage.

 

Ubuganga(Malaria).

Abakurambere indwara bitaga ubuganga niyo abazungu basanze ari Malaria, bo bavugaga ko bwandurira mu bishanga. Iyo umuntu yateganyaga urugendo kandi aziko ari buce mu gishanga, yirindaga kurebana n’abantu yatekerezaga ko bamutera umwaku, uyu mwaku ukaba watuma arwara ubuganga(malaria).

Ntibari bazi ko iterwa n’umubu. Umurwayi w’ubuganga yavurwaga mu buryo bunyuranye bitewe n’urugero uburwayi bwe bwabaga bugezeho.

Umuntu agufatwa bamuhaga urusenda ruseye ruvanze n’amazi ariko bayayunguruye akayanywa mu gitondo. Hari ubwo yabanzaga mu nda umutsima wa rucakarara.

Umunsi ukurikiyeho bamuhaga umuti ukomomatanyije w’igikakarubamba, icyatsi bitaga akanyamapfundo(cyangwa rutenderi), icyatsi bitaga Wambuba, igishakasheke, umuhengeri na karoti ebyiri bitaga nyiramuko.

Ibi byose barabivangaga bagakoramo igikoma umurwayi yanywaga mu bihe bitandukanye bigize umunsi.

Iyo umurwayi yatindaga gukira nyuma yo kunywa iriya mvange, bakurikizagaho kumuha umuti ugizwe n’umuravumba n’umubirizi bivanze n’igikoma cy’amasaka.

Yakwanga gukira bakamuha imizi y’icyatsi gisharira cyane bitaga kamenamaseke(kumena, amaseke=amabuye)akayihekenya bityo umuriro uguhunga ubwo busharire bw’iyo mizi.

Umuti wa nyuma bahaga umurwayi w’ubuganga ni ugufata ibibabi by’igiti bitaga ikizimyamuriro bakabishyira ku ijosi ry’umurwayi babicuritse, ibi bigakorwa mu rwego rwo gucurika umuriro bityo ukagabanuka.

Uretse kuvura indwara z’umubiri zisanzwe abanyarwanda ba kera bemeraga ko hari indwara ziterwa n’imivumo y’abakura mbere harimo uburwayi bwo mu mutwe, kubura urubyaro bitewe n’uburemba n’izindi.

Izi ndwara zavurwaga no kubaza abapfumu cyangwa abahannyi bagasaba abakurambera ko baca inkoni izamba.

Muri make ubuvuzi bw’abanyarwanda bo hambere bwari bufite uburyo bwinshi bwakorwaga bitewe n’indwara ndetse n’uburyo uduce runaka tw’u Rwanda twavuraga.

Uwashaka kumenya byinshi ku ndwara z’abanyarwanda bo hambere yagana mu nzu ishyinguwemo inyandiko z’amateka y’u Rwanda iri Rwandex mu nzu yitwa Le Prestige, agasoma igitabo cya Lestrade yise La Médecine Indigène au Ruanda et Lexique des termes médicaux français-urunyarwanda.

Bamwe mu baturage Lestrade yafotoye bo mu Rukiga bari barwaye ibibembe

Witereje neza mu maso uyu mugabo afite ibibyimba bigaragaza  ko arwaye ibibembe bitarakabya

Jean Pierre NIZEYIMANA
UMUSEKE.RW

2 Comments

  1. Kanyarwanda

    25/10/2017 at 8:01 pm

    Inkorora, ibicurane, inzoka zo munda n’ibindi ku ndwara zabana.

  2. Gicali

    26/10/2017 at 2:12 am

    Rwanda rwakanyarwanda
    Mwari abahanga pe!!!
    Gusa ikibabsje nta muto wubu
    Ubimenya iyi miti
    Mbese ubuvuzi gakondo bwaraducitse
    Ni mureke chine yikirire
    Bo babuteje imbere kugera naho hari univerisite wiga medecine traditinel
    Rwose ndashima uduhaye iyi nkuru
    Gusa azatubarize uko icyo gitabo kigura

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