Sobanukirwa n’ingufu enye (4) zigenga isanzure…na Dr Uwamahoro – UMUSEKE

Sobanukirwa n’ingufu enye (4) zigenga isanzure…na Dr Uwamahoro

Isanzure n’ibirimo bifite uko bikora, buri kintu mu birigize gifite ingufu zituma gikora kandi kigakorana n’ibindi. Izi ngufu abahanga bemeza ko izizwi cyane ari enye: Ingufu rukuruzi(force gravitationelle)., ingufu zikora biturutse ku mashanyarazi azibamo(force electromagnetisme), n’izindi ngufu ebyiri ziba mu ntimatima ya atome (izi bazita strong force na weak force).

Umuseke waganiriye na Dr Jean Uwamahoro wigisha ubugenge bw’izuba n’indi mibumbe adusobanurira uko izi ngufu ziteye, aho zitandukanira n’ingaruka zigira ku mikorere y’ibintu mu isanzure harimo n’umubiri w’umuntu…

Dr Uwamahoro aganira n'Umuseke

Dr Uwamahoro aganira n’Umuseke

Uyu muhanga yize muri Cape Town University aho yakuye impamyabumenyi y’ikirenga mu bugenge. Ubu ni umwalimu umaze igihe yigisha ubugenge muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda ishami ry’uburezi.

Dr Uwamahoro avuga ko ubusanzwe muri physique basobanura ingufu(force) ari uko bagereranyije ikintu n’ikindi. Kuba umuntu atasunikana n’imodoka iri kugenda bigaragaza ko iba imurusha ingufu nyinshi.

Avuga ko ingufu zigenga isanzure zigenda zitandukana hashingiwe ku bigize ikintu runaka mu biri mu isanzure.

Muri izi ngufu enye twavuze haruguru ngo hari ebyiri zikora cyane henshi kurusha izindi ku bintu binini bigaragarira amaso(macroscopic objects).

Izo ngufu ebyiri ni force gravitationelle na force electromagnétique.

Force gratationelle niyo ituma Isi n’Izuba bikorana.  Izi ngufu kandi nizo zituma ibintu byose bigenda mu kirere bikora.

Izi ngufu kandi nizo zituma umwuka duhumeka uguma ku isi abantu bakawukoresha.

Force electromagnétique yo igaragarira mu bintu biri hano ku isi tubona mu buzima bwa buri munsi hariko nk’inkuba, n’ibintu bintu biba byifitemo amashanyarazi nka za mudasobwa, n’ibindi.

Izi ngufu zose ngo urugero zikoranaho ruba akenshi rushingiye ku buso bwa buri kintu n’intera igitandukanya n’ikindi.

Urugero rutangwa ni uko intera iri hagati y’ikintu n’ikindi igena ingufu ziri bukoreshwe kugira ngo ibyo bintu byombi bikorane. Mu yandi magambo bivuze ko uko intera iba ndende ari nako ingufu zihuza ibyo bintu byombi ziba nkeya.

Iyo umuntu uri hejuru y’umuturirwa wa metero 200 ahanutse ingufu zimukurura ziba ari nyinshi ugereranyije n’izamukurura ahanutse ari muri metero 15 z’ubutumburuke.

Kubera ko umubyimba we uba ari muto(masse) ugereranyije n’umubyimba w’isi imukurura bituma umuvuduko ahanukamo uba ari munini.

Dr Uwamahoro ati: “ Ingufu rukuruzi hagati ya mercure n’izuba ndetse n’iri hagati y’Isi n’Izuba bishobora gutandukana bitewe n’umubyimba wa buri mubumbe(izuba na mercure) ariko cyane cyane biterwa n’intera iri hagati y’iyi mibumbe(buri wose ukwawo) n’Izuba.”

Yongeyeho ko izi ngufu zombi zitagira iherezo kuko izuba rishobora kuba rikorana n’ayandi mazuba ari kure cyane ariko gupima ingufu rikoresha ntipimwe kuko iryo zuba rindi riba riri kure cyane.

Nubwo ari uko bimeze ariko ngo ingufu rukuruzi ni nto ugereranyije n’ingufu z’amashanyarazi aba mu binyabuzima biri ku si.

Ingufu z'izuba nizo zituma imibumbe iyegereye cyangwa iri kure buri umwe uzenguruka mu nzira yawo ntuve mu nzira yawo

Ingufu z’izuba nizo zituma imibumbe iyegereye cyangwa iri kure buri umwe uzenguruka mu nzira yawo ntuve mu nzira yawo

Izindi ngufu ebyiri

Hari izindi ngufu ebyiri zikorera mu ntimatima(atoms) zigize ibintu byose biri mu isanzure. Ubusanzwe buri kintu kiri mu isanzure kigizwe n’utuntu bita atoms. Mu ntimatima ya atoms habamo ibyo bita Protons na Neutrons.

Protons ubusanzwe ziba zifitemo amashanyarazi atyaye(positive charges) kandi bizwi ko iyo amashanyarazi afite izi ngufu yegeranye ahita asunikana, kuko yose aba afite ingufu.

Igitangaje ni uko abahanga basanze muri za protons ho atari ko bimeze. Ngo harimo ingufu nyinshi cyane zifata izi protons zikazihuriza hamwe, ntizitatane.

Izi ngufu zitagaragarira amaso nizo abahanga bita strong force.

Dr Jean Uwamahoro avuga ko izi ngufu ziba ari nyinshi cyane k’uburyo abahanga bazifashisha bakora ingufu za kirimbuzi zifashishwa mu nganda zikora amashanyarazi asanzwe cyangwa mu zikora intwaro za kirimbuzi.

Ingufu bita Weak Force ngo zo zigaragara iyo za ikintu runaka gihindutse ikindi binyuze mu kwitandukanya jkwa za atoms.

Ibi bishoboka binyuze mu byo bita radioactivity n’ibindi.

Kubera ko muri kwihinduranya bisaba ko protons zimwe zisange neutrons nazo zikazisanga, ingufu zituma ibi biba nizo abahanga bita Weak Force. Izi akenshi zigaragara ku bintu runaka urugero nk’iyo utwitse urukwi, za protons na neutrons zigize urukwi zirahinduka icyari urukwi kikaba igishirira, igishirira kikaza kuvamo ivu.

Ku rundi ruhande ariko, abahanga bavuga ko ingufu zitajya zitakara burundu ahubwo zihinduka izindi.

Dr Uwamahoro ati: “Niba ikintu cyari atome ya carbon gihindukamo indi element”

Dr Jean Uwamahoro avuga ko burya izuba ari rinini cyane k’uburyo byasaba imibumbe ingana n’isi 110 kugira ngo bingane n’izuba.

Yemeza ko izuba riruta indi mibumbe yose iri mu kirere k’uburyo nta n’uwakwirirwa abigereranya.

Ibi biratangaje kuko burya ngo umurambararo w’Isi ari ibilometero 6400. Ibi rero birumvikanisha ubunini bw’izuba

Uwamahoro avuga ko hashobora kuba hari izindi ngufu ziri mu isanzure abahanga bataramenya neza. Izi ngufu ngo nizo zikurura isanzure zikariha umurongo rikoreraho. Ibi kandi ngo bigaragazwa n’uko isanzure naryo ubwaryo rigenda.

Ibi bituma abahanga kugeza ubu bemeza ko bazi ibintu bike cyane mu biri mu isanzure kuko ngo ari rinini cyane kandi rigenda rikura uko bagenda bamenya ibyaryo.

ingufu zindi ni izisanzwe ziba ku isi nk'amashanyarazi, inkuba n'ibindi

ingufu zindi ni izisanzwe ziba ku isi nk’amashanyarazi, inkuba n’ibindi

Dr Jean Uwamahoro avuga ko ingufu za Gravity zigira ingaruka ku mitemberere y’amaraso. Avuga ko burya kuba abantu bakora urugendo rurerure babyimba ibirenge biterwa na gravite kuko iba ikurura amaraso iyatsindagira mu birenge.

Gusa ngo ni amahire kuko hari umutima ufite ingufu zo kuyakurura ukayatembereza hose. Kereka iyo umutima ufite ibibazo.

Kuba umuntu ukuze yitwaza akabando ngo biterwa n’uko uko umuntu asaza ari ko ubunini bw’umubiri we bigenda bugabanyuka. Ibi rero bituma umubiri ucika intege bigasaba ko umuntu ukuze ashaka akabando ko kugira ngo ingufu za gravity zitazamurusha ingufu ahubwo abashe kugenda yumva aguwe neza.

Akabando abasaza bitwaza gatuma intera iri hagari yabo n’isi iba ndende kurushaho bityo ingufu za gravity z’isi zikaba nkeya.

Burya ngo abantu barebare ngo Isi irabakurura cyane kurusha abagufi bityo bagatangira kwitwaza akabando kare.

Dr Uwamahoro yavuze ko burya abagore bambara inkweto ndende bahura n’ikabazo cyo kugenda neza kuko baba bakandagiza akantu gato ku butaka burimo rukuruzi iba ushaka kubagusha.

Kwambara inkweto zishashe hasi ni byo byiza kuko bituma ingufu za rukuruzi z’Isi zibona aho zifata hagaragara bityo uzambaye ntagire ikibazo.

Gusa ariko ngo no kurimba birakenewe kubera iterambere.

Mu gucura intwaro kirimbuzi bifashisha ingufu ziba muri atome ubusanzwe ziba zisunikana, kuzigumisha hamwe nibyo bakoramo ingufu kirimbuzi

Mu gucura intwaro kirimbuzi bifashisha ingufu ziba muri atome ubusanzwe ziba zisunikana, kuzigumisha hamwe nibyo bakoramo ingufu kirimbuzi

Jean Pierre NIZEYIMANA
UMUSEKE.RW

2 Comments

  1. nicayenzi

    22/06/2017 at 2:19 pm

    HABUZE GATO NGO MBYUMVE.

  2. PACI

    27/06/2017 at 12:35 pm

    IZI NKURU NDAZIKUNDA CYANE

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