Ubuvuzi ni umwuga ibisekuru byigira ku byabanje – UMUSEKE

Ubuvuzi ni umwuga ibisekuru byigira ku byabanje

Nubwo buri muco ugira uko uvura indwara z’abaturage runaka, hari abantu ku rwego rw’Isi bemerwa ko aribo baganga bagaragaje ubuhanga bushingiye ku bushakashatsi bazwi ku Isi. Muri bo harimo Hippocrate na Louis Pasteur. Hari abandi kandi batamenyekanye cyane aribo: Vésale, William Morton n’abandi.

Hippocrate uwo abaganga bavuga ko hazanye uburyo bushya bwo kuvura indwara ushingiye ku bushakashatsi

Kuva kera ariko ubuvuzi bwabaga ari uruvange rw’ubumenyi buciriritse muri science y’ibinyabuzima ndetse n’imigenzo ya gipfumu.

Umwanditsi witwa Dr Felix Marti Ibanez mu gitabo yise L’épopée de la Médecine yagize ati: “Abahoze batuye Mésopotamie bavangaga ubuvuzi busanzwe n’ubupfumu kuko bakekaga ko zimwe mu ndwara zaterwaga n’imivumo y’abasekuruza.”

Ibi kandi niko byari bimeze ku baturage ba Misiri ya kera.

Mu kinyejana cya gatanu mbere ya Yesu Kristu mu Bugereki hadutse umugabo wari umuhanga mu kuvura ariko akabikora ashingiye k’ubumenyi bw’ibyo yabaga yasuzumye.

Uwo ni Hippocrate wavutse 460 Mbere ya Yesu Kristu. Yavukiye ku kirwa cyo mu Bugereki kitwa Cos.

Abize ubuvuzi muri za Kaminuza zose ku Isi bazi ko ariwe wahimbye uburyo bwo kuvura abenshi bagenderaho muri iki gihe nubwo hataburamo akarusho k’ikoranabuhanga rigezweho.

Kuri Hippocrate ibyo kuvuga ko hari indwara ziterwa n’imyuka mibi byari ibintu bidafite ishingiro.

Igicuri benshi mu gihe cye bemeraga ko giterwa n’imivumo y’abakurambere ariko we akavuga ko hagomba kuba hari impamvu ifatika ishingiye ku bintu bifatika igitera.

Hippocrate niwe muntu wa mbere wakoze urutonde rw’indwara n’ibimenyetso byazo kugira ngo azabihereho ashaka umuti wazo.

Hippocrates niwe bitirira indahiro abaganga bose barahira iyo barangije amasomo yabo bagiye kufata impamyabumenyi.

Imwe mu nteruro irimo ni ‘Ntukagira icyo wangiza(Do not harm)’

Nyuma ye haje Galien uyu akaba yaranditse inyandiko nini ukubiyemo uko abaganga bamubanjirije barimo na Hippocrate babonaga iby’indwara n’imiti babigeneraga.

Muri  129 Nyuma ya Yesu Kristu havutse undi mugabo witwaga André Vésale avukira mu mujyi wa Brussels mu Bubiligi. Niwe muganga wa mbere watangiye ibyo kubaga umubiri w’umuntu kugira ngo amenye uko inyama z’imbere ziteye, uko zikorana no kumenya uko yazivura.

Yanditse igitabo cya mbere muri uru rwego yise mu Kilatini: De Humani Corporis Fabrica . Iki gitabo cye nticyavuzweho rumwe kuko cyanengaga bimwe mu byemerwaga n’abamubanjirije.

Iki gitabo ariko cyabaye umusingi abandi baganga bagendeyeho biga cyangwa se basesengura kurushaho imiterere y’umuntu(imikaya, imitsi, amagufa, amaraso…) n’uburyo ibiyigize bikorana.

Igitabo kitwa Les illustres(Indashyikirwa) kivuga ko Vesale ari ‘umwe mu baganga n’abashakashatsi mu b’ibihe byose mu buvuzi’.

Nyuma haje undi muganga wo mu Bwongereza witwa William Harvey ajora cyane ibyo Galien yari yaranditse mu mikorere y’umutima no gutembera kw’amaraso mu mitsi.

Harvey yamaze igihe kirekire abaga inyamaswa kugira ngo arebe uko amaraso atembere mu mitsi yazo n’uburyo imitima yazo yakoraga. Yabashije kumenya uko utwuba(valvules) two mu mutima dukora, amenya ubunini bw’amaraso(Volume sanguine) mu mutima bungana ndetse n’uko amaraso yose mu mubiri angana.

Muri 1628 yasohoye igitabo yise Essai d’anatomie sur le mouvement du Coeur et du sang chez les animaux.

Abantu ku isi baracyamaganye barakijora, ariko birangira gitanze amakuru afatika k’ukuntu amaraso azenguruka mu mubiri.

William Harvey umwe mu batangije igikorwa cyo gusatura umubiri w’umuntu hagamijwe kwiga uko ateye (human body dissection )

Bigeze mu gihe abanyamateka bita Middle Ages hadutse abaganga bitaga ‘les médicin barbiers’ barimo uzwi cyane wo mu Bufaransa witwaga Ambroise Paré.

Uyu ari muba mbere bahimbye ibyuma byakoreshwaga mu kubaga abarwayi mu gihe cye, abandi nabo bakaba baragiye babinonosora gahoro gahoro.

Abaganga bo muri biriya bihe bahuraga n’ikibazo kimwe gikomeye: Kutabasha kugabanya ububare bw’umurwayi.

Uwa mbere wabashije guhimba ikinya ni umuganga w’amenyo w’Umwongereza witwaga William Morton. Icyo gihe harI mu 1846.

Undi muntu wafashije ubuvuzi kandi atarabwize ni umuhanga mu bugenge w’Umudage witwaga Wilhelm Rontgen.

Mu mwaka wa 1895 ubwo yari muri Labo ye yiga iby’ubugenge bw’amashanyarazi yaje kubona umurasire wabashije guca mu mukaya(chair, muscle) ariko ntuhite ngo uce mu igufwa.

Amaze kuyoborwa aho uturutse n’impamvu zituma uca mu mikaya ariko ntuboneze mu igufwa yawise umurasire wa X( rayon X, X ray).

Icyo gihe atashye yabitekerereje umugore aramubwira ati: “Erega abantu bazagira ngo Rontgen yarasaze”

Nubwo koko hari abavuze ko uriya munyabugenge yasaze, ariko ubushakashatsi bwe bafashije abaganga kubasha kureba indwara ziri mu mibiri y’abantu hakoreshejwe ibyo bita radiographie.

 Mu mateka y’abantu kandi hakunze kwaduka indwara nyinshi ziturutse mwanda nk’iseru n’ibindi.

Umwe mu baganga bakomeye bo mu bihugu by’Abasilamu babayeho kera witwaga Rhazès niwe wa mbere wakoze urukingo rw’iseru.  Icyo gihe hari mu kinyejana cya cyenda nyuma ya Yesu Kristu.

Nyuma y’ibinyejana byinshi nyuma y’aho nibwo umuganga witwaga Edward Jenner wo mu Bwongereza yabashije gukora umuti uvura iseru.

Umufaransa witwa Louis Pasteur niwe wabashije kubona ko utuntu duto bita germes turi mu gutuma za bacteries zikura zigatera indwara.

Undi muganga witwa Robert Koch yaje kubumbura ko igituntu giterwa nacyo na tumwe muri twa germes.

Igituntu niyo ndwara abanyamateka bavuga ko yagiye ihitana abantu benshi mu bice bitandukanye by’isi.

Ibikorwa bwa Pasteru na Kosh nibyo byahaye abandi bahanga uburyo bwo gutangira kwiga utunyabuzima tutaboneshwa amaso, mucyo bita microbiologie.

Ubuhanga bwimbitse muri iri somo bwatumye havumburwa inkingo n’imiti byinshi byongerereye abantu ikizere cyo kubaho(Espérance de vie).

Mu myaka yakurikiyeho abaganga batandukanye bagiye bahera kubyo bagenzi babo bakoze nabo bakora ibindi bihambaye byose bigamije gufasha abantu kuramba binyuze mu kubakingira indwara no kuzibavura.

Muri ubu bushakashatsi bakoze umuti witwa insuline ufasha abarwaye diabetes, koroshya ubukana bwa za cancers hakoreshejwe ibyo bita chimiothèrapie, kuringaniza imikorere y’imisemburo(système endocrinier) hagamijwe kurinda inyama ikenera iriya misemburo kwangirika cyangwa gukora nabi, imiti bita antibiotiques ihangana n’indwara zikomeye nk’igituntu, ibinini bitandukanye bihangana na malaria, uburyo bita dialyse bufasha abarwaye impyiko, kubaga umutima, gusimbuza ingingo runaka z;umuntu izindi n’ibindi tutarondora.

Mu magambo avunaguye, izo ni ingero zerekana ko abaganga bagenda bigira kubyo bagenzi babo bo mu gihe runaka bakoze. Ibi kandi biba mu bice bitandukanye by’ubuhanga n’ubumenyi.

Louis Pasteur umushakashatsi w’Umufaransa wavumbuye ko za bacteries zikomoka ku tuntu duto tuzitiza umurindi zikagakura zikavamo indwara nk’igituntu n’izindi. Aha yari ari muri Labo ye i Paris

Abaganga b’ubu basigaye babaga abarwayi bakoreshe robots zikoreshwa na mudasobwa. Iyo Galien n’abandi batagira icyo bavumbura mbere byari kugora ab’ubu.

Jean Pierre NIZEYIMANA

UMUSEKE.RW

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