Africa izikuremo ibyo yita 'Partnership', ntiwafatanya n'uwo mutareshya – Prof. Nzeyimana | | UMUSEKE
  • 05/08/2020 9:53 46

Africa izikuremo ibyo yita ‘Partnership’, ntiwafatanya n’uwo mutareshya – Prof. Nzeyimana

*Ba Perezida ba Africa ni bo gusa batumizwa na Perezida umwe w’igihugu k’Iburayi bagakorana inama itari mpuzamigabane

Umwarimu  muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda akaba n’umuhanga muri Filozofiya, Prof. Isaie Nzeyimana avuga ko iyo umugabane wa Africa uvuga ngo ufite abagiraneza bo ku yindi Migabane baza kuyibera ‘Abafatanyabikorwa’, iba yibeshya. Ngo umuntu mutanganya amaboko ntiyakubera umufatanyabikorwa kandi wowe ntabyo ufite, aragufasha cyangwa ukamufasha ! Nta kindi !

Prof Nzeyimana Isaie

Prof Nzeyimana hari inama atanga…

Ikiganiro kirambuye

 1. Igitekerezo cyo gushinga Umuryango wa Africa yunze Ubumwe (AU) cyaje gite? Ese cyari gikenewe? Ubundi se uyu muryango ugamije iki mu gihe kingana gute?

Prof Nzeyimana : Politike y’Ubumwe bwa Africa yatangiranye n’ibihugu bibiri mu w’i 1958, byitwa « Union Ghana-Guinée » ; mu w’i 1960 iza kwitwa «Union des Etats d’Afrique » ; mu w’i 1960 Mali na yo izaho…  Kugeza mbere y’uko Union Africaine iza kuvanaho Organisation de l’Unité Africaine (OUA), yakomeje kugendera ku bitekerezo by’abanyapolitike b’abayabwenge nka Kwame Nkrumah wa Ghana, Sékou Touré wa  Guiné, Modibo Keita wa Mali na Hassn II wa Maroc, cyane yerekeye ku bitekerezo bya filozogiya ya politike ya «marxiste-socialiste», kuko basangaga ari yo ijyanye n’imico ya Africa. Iyo filozofiya ya politike ntiyari kuborohera. Muri ibyo bihe Isi yari yigabanyijemo ibice bibiri binini.

 Harimo ibigendera ku bitekerezo by’ukwishyira ukizana muri byose «Libéralisme-Capitalisme», Leta n’imitungo bikaba ari iby’abaturage. Harimo n’ibigendera ku bitekerezo bishyira imbere igihugu, abaturage n’imitungo bikaba iby’igihugu. Impamvu y’ibyo bihe, ni uko gushyigikira umuryango nk’uwo cyangwa kuwurwanya ku mugaragaro, byombi byarutwaga no  kuwushyigikira ahubwo ukarwanyirizwa muri uko kuwushyigikira, byo kuwuhembera gusa, ngo ubeho ariko ntugire icyo ukora.

Muri 1961, Guinée yaje kwiherera igirana umubano na USA, yo yagenderaga kuri politike y’ubukungu bwa « libéralisme-capitalisme » naho abatekereje Ubumwe bwa Afurika bo baragenderaga ku bitekerezo, filozofiya na politike bya « socialisme ». Muri uko kutumvikana  umuryango uba uhagaze.  

Muri 1963, hakomerejeho OUA, yemezwa n’ibihugu 33, mu biganiro byabereye i Addis Abbeba. Muri 2002, OUA yavuyemo UA, mu biganiro byabereye muri Africa y’Epfo.

 Kimwe na «Union des Etats d’Afrique», kimwe kandi na OUA, UA na yo yashingiye ku bitekerezo bya «Panafricanisme ». Gusa impaka zasigaye ku murongo UA yafata : hagati yo gukora Leta imwe ya Africa, cyangwa gukorera hamwe ariko Leta zikagumana ubwigenge n’ubusugire bwazo.

Ibyo UA igamije ni ibitekerozo byashingiweho « Panaficanisme », bishingiye ku bibazo Africa yari ifite icyo gihe : kurwanya irondakoko n’ibyaba bijya gusa na ryo byose, kugarurira agaciro Umwirabura n’Umunyafururika aho ari hose ku Isi no kwihutisha iterambere rya Africa rishingiye kuri Afurika ubwayo n’imico, imyifatire n’imitekerereze y’Abanyafurika. Mu mikorere, UA ifite intego n’ikerekezo 2063 bikubiyemo inkingi UA ibona ko ari zo z’ingenzi. Ibyo twaza kubigarukaho.

2. Iyo musesenguye icyatumye ubaho mubona kizagerwaho ari uko bigenze gute?

Prof Nzeyimana : Hari ibibazo OUA yatangiranye n’ubu bishobora kuba bikiri muri UA. «Union des Etats d’Afrique » kimwe na OUA yari igamije guhuza Afurika, ikaba Leta zunze Ubumwe za Africa. Mu mpaka haje gutungukamo ikindi gitekerezo cyo kuba UA yakomeza Ubumwe ariko Leta zikagumana ubwigenge n’ubusugire bwazo.

Impamvu  zatanzwe ngo ni uko Leta imwe yari kuba itandukanye n’indi miryango yari ahandi ku Isi, ko byari guhita biteza Africa kwihaza «autonomie» kandi igikeneye ibindi bihugu by’indi migabane.  Indi ngingo yari uko ngo Africa ari nyinshi (disparités), ko ibihugu bitandukanye mu mico no mu ngano y’umubare w’abaturage; ikindi ngo Leta za Africa na zo ni nyinshi (ntizisa).

 Ingingo ya mbere yo ntawayitindaho, irivuguruza ubwayo. Iya kabiri n’iya gatatu zo zinyuranye n’ubumenyi busanzwe buzwi kuri Africa bw’abahanga nka Cheikh Anta Diop, ubushakashatsi, ibiganiro mpuzamahanga babikozeho, ibitabo babyanditseho kugeza ubu bitaravuguruzwa, binatandukanye kandi n’uko Abanyafururika ubwabo babyibonera.

Ikigaragara ni uko muri izo mpaka, inyungu bwite z’Abayobozi n’ibihugu zari zitangiye kurutishwa iza Africa iri hamwe.

Nyuma mu biganiro byabereye i Accra muri Gahna mu 2007, ubwo hagombaga kwemezwa gushyiraho Leta  imwe ya Africa, hagarutse igitekerezo cy’uko Africa yakomeza kuba imwe, Leta zikagumana ubusugire bwazo, ahubwo UA igahabwa inzego zifite ubushobozi. Muri izo mpaka na none ku kibazo cya politike y’ubukungu ishingiye ku rujya n’uruza rw’abantu, ibintu na service « Libre échage », nabwo haza ingingo z’ibihugu bishaka kuba hagati : kubangikanya politike y’ubukungu, y’urujya n’uruza « Libre echange»  n’iyo gukumira «protectionnisme ».

Duhereye ku mpaka ziba muri UA, hari imyanzuro :

1° Kwishyira hamwe kwa Afrrika byatangiriye mu bucakara, irondakoko, ubukoloni n’Intambara z’Ubutita zari zihanganishije ibihugu bikomeye, OUA itangizwa n’Abanyafurika ubwabo; ubu ibisigisigi by’ibibazo by’amoko ntibiracika burundu, kuko mu batuye Isi hari imico n’imikorere y’ibihugu bihora bibahemberamo ko nyamara bakomoka ku bantu bato.

Ikindi, muri ibi bihe UA irakorera mu bukungu bw’ibihugu byakize, bisigaye gusa biharanira kuguma ku myanya yabyo, kandi ko iyo myanya yahora ari ko imeze, na Africa ikagumana uwayo. Hari umu « Général » wo mu ntambara za kera babwiye ko nyamara hari abakene benshi mu Ntara ze, arababwira ngo nibamurekere abakene. Mu kubaka ubukungu abakene benshi ntacyo batwaye. Ibyo n’abubu barabizi, imigabane ikennye ni isoko rinini.

2°Kuri UA ubwayo, iyo bigeze kuri gahunda y’umushinga umwe wa Africa, haza impaka z’ibi bihugu bigenda bibyangira. Ibyo biba ari ukurebera Abanyafurika ku gace kamwe gusa, k’inyungu z’ubukungu « économie ». Abanyafurika si ubukungu, amafaranga gusa; Abanyafurika ni « umutima » umwe  bafitanye, ku buryo aho uhuriye n’Umunyafurika wese murebana, niyo mwaba ntacyo muvuganye, ukabona nyamara hari icyo mubwiranye.

Haracyari kubusanya hagati y’uko Abayobozi b’ibihugu batekereza Africa n’uko abaturage bayitekereza, keretse habayeho «Referendum » y’Abaturage bose ba Africa. Muri icyo kinyuranyo, uko byagombye kuba byumvikana mu baturage ba Africa ni uko UA ifite gahunda yo kugira Africa imwe na Leta imwe. Mu ngingo n’ikerekezo 2063 Abayobozi bemeje, nta gahunda ya Leta imwe ya Africa irimo. UA ni ubumwe ariko mu bwigenge n’ubusugire bwa buri Leta. Ibyo bitekerezo bihora byigerekeranya igihe cyose impaka zivutse mu biganiro bya UA: gutekereza nk’uko Abanyafurika bose bafitanye  “umutima” umwe, gukora nk’uko buri Leta ifite ubwigenge n’ubusugira bwayo.

3° Iyo bigeze ku rujya n’uruza rw’abantu, ibintu na services, « libre echange », hari Leta zumva n’ubusanzwe nta gikumira zifite ku isoko rya Africa, ko atari ngombwa kwihamagarira ibibazo, ko abaturage b’ibindi bihugu bazazibera imitwaro. Ibyo na none ni ukurebera Africa bugufi, na none Africa si amafaranga gusa. Ni no kunyuranya n’umwimerere w’impamvu UA yashyiriweho. Turetse ibibazo by’ifaranga « monnaie », ku buryo ubu muri Africa habarurwa ubwoko bw’ifaranga bugeze kuri 40, bikaba bitoroshya ubuhahirane, ubu mu mpande zose za Africa, hagenda hagaragaramo nibura igihugu kimwe cyakurura ibindi « pôle d’attraction » ku buryo gukwiza Africa ubukungu byakwihuta.

3. Ese kugira ngo AU ibeho yihagije mubona byashoboka? Kugira ngo bishoboke byasaba ko hakorwa iki? Bigakorwa na nde? Ku nyungu za nde?

Prof Nzeyimana : Duhereye n’aho twari tugeze: intego za UA zishingiye ku bufatanye bwa Africa. Mu mikorere, ifite n’ikerekezo 2063 hagaragaramo uburezi, ubuzima n’imibereho myiza, inganda, ubuhinzi, ibikomoka ku mazi, mu nyanja, ibidukijije, ubukerarugendo, umuco, ubuhanzi, ubwigenge bwa Africa n’ubusugire bwa za Leta, inzego z’ubukungu n’iz’ifaranga, uburinganire hagati y’abagabo n’abagore, urubyiruko, ibikorwa remezo, imiyoborere myiza, amahoro n’umutekano, amahoro ku Isi n’imiryango mpuzamahanga,…  Bishobora kuba ari byinshi cyane.

1° UA ishobora gukomeza gusa n’aho ikomatanya inzego z’ubuzima bw’Abanyafurika zose, nk’uko izo nzego z’ubuzima ziba zinateganyijwe muri za Leta; muri icyo gihe UA ikaba ari nka Leta muri za Leta, cyangwa nka Leta yiyongera ku zindi Leta.

2° UA ishobora guhitamo inzego z’ibibazo by’ibyifatizo ibindi byose bishingiyeho, kandi bikaba ari imishinga mpuzabihugu. Amahoro make, umutekano muke, abimukira bajya kwiroha ku yindi migabane y’Isi, indwanyi zihishe muri Africa, inzara… si ibibazo gusa, ni n’ingaruka z’ibibazo.

Mu biganiro Umuryango w’Ibihugu by’Uburayi (EU) ugirana na UA n’indi miryango, EU isaba Africa kubaka demokarasi, amahoro, umutekano. UA na yo yabigize intego zayo. Ibyo bishobora kuba atari byo bibura. Iby’ibanze muri Africa ni Leta zidakorera gusa mu mirwa mikuru, ahubwo ziri hose ku butaka bwazo no mu baturage bazo. Leta ziramutse ziri hose, zakora n’ibindi. Ariko iyo hamwe na hamwe zisa n’izidahari, n’ibindi byaza byose ntibyagira aho bishyirwa. Imiyoborere myiza na demokarasi byubakwa na Leta ikabyubaka muri Leta. Ikibazo cy’ubukungu budakora uko bikwiye gikwega ibindi ku buryo gikemutse hari n’ibindi byakemuka.

Uko intego za UA ziri :

3) Kuko intego za UA ziri no mu igenamigambi rya za Leta, UA yakorana na za Leta n’ibigo bizirimo bijyanye n’imishinga mpuzabihugu UA yaba ifite. Bisaba ko AU iva muri politike na “programmes” z’ubukungu  n’iterambere nk’uko bigaragara mu ntego zayo z’ikirezeko 2063. Ahanini, politike na “programmes” z’ubukungu zirazwi, inkingi n’ibikorwa remezo by’ubukungu birazwi. Ntibigikeneye ibiganiro n’“insanganyamatsiko ndende” nk’izivuga ngo Africa izatezwa imbere no gukoresha technologie, ICT, …  Ikitazwi ni imishinga yo guhindura imikorere no guhindura ibihari (transformation).

Kuba Leta mu zindi Leta, na byo bishobora gutera AU amashyari mu mishinga, aho ishobora gushyiraho umushinga usanzwe unakorwa n’izindi Leta. UA ifite, mu kerekezo 2063 kuzashyiraho indege. Leta nyinshi zo muri Africa zifite indege, zimwe zahombye, izindi zikigerageza, zihanganye n’andi masoko. Uwo mushinga nuvukamo impaka za Leta zifite izindi ndege, bizaba na byo byumvikana. Niyo mpavu AU aho kuba Leta mu zindi Leta yafatanya n’inzego ziriho n’imishinga iriho, igihe cyose yaba ari mpuzabihugu. 

4° Kubera ibibazo bihora muri Africa by’ubwoko bwinshi, UA ihora na yo iza gukemura ibyihutirwa: uwafashe ubutegetsi ku ngufu, aho amatora atagenze uko yari kugenda, uwaremye umutwe w’indwanyi, indwanyi zateye abaturage, abimukira, abarengereye imbibi z’imipaka, inzara yateye, ….ibyinshi muri ibyo si ibibazo, ni ingaruka z’ibindi bibazo.

Nk’ikibazo cy’urubyiruko gikunze kugarukwaho, ubu bimaze kuba akamenyero ko uvuze kuri Africa ntavuge ku mubare w’urubyiruko n’uw’abagore, aba atazi gutegura “discours” ye neza. Nta kibazo urubyiruko rufite rwihariye, rufite ibibazo nk’ibyo “société” yose ifite. Ikindi umuntu ntatinda mu kuba urubyiruko. Uruvuga yagombye guhita anaruha igisubizo ubwo nyine. N’abagore ni uko, bafite ibibazo bya société yose.

Mu gitabo mperutse kwandika “Héra et Aphrodite s’interrogent sur leur bauté” -online-, cyangwa “Hera na Aphrodite baribaza ku bwiza bwabo”, nasanze ko bo barwanira ku ntera ebyiri. Iyo bashoboye kurangiza ikibazo cyo kuringanira na bagenzi babo b’abahungu cyangwa abagabo, noneno baba basigaranye ibindi bibazo: iby’amoko byo ntibireba niba ari umugore cyangwa umugabo, ahubwo uko yavutse gusa, iby’iheza mu bukungu kitareba niba ari umugore cyangwa umugabo, ahubwo uwo ari we wese.

Muri ibyo bibazo bya société n’ubukungu, Africa, kugira ngo igaragare cyane, iyo ibonye uburyo, hari aho yibanda ku mishinga n’ibikorwa byo hejuru « Elite- VIP » Imishinga minini yo mu migi irahenda, kandi ishobora kuba inagirira akamaro bake, akenshi ntinaba yakorewe abaturage b’igihugu, ahubwo abagenda muri icyo gihugu. Imishinga yo mu cyaro, yo akenshi iraciriritse, n’iyo yaba ihenze igirira akamaro benshi. Abashyigikiye imishinga « VIP » bavuga ko niyo ubukungu bwahera hejuru bugakiza Leta, iba ikiriye abaturage, kuko ngo igaruka ikabubasaranganyamo.

Muri UA hari Politiki z’ubukungu n’inzego kurusha uko habamo imishinga. Iyo urwego uru n’uru rwerekana politiki z’ubukungu n’ibyo zishingiraho aho kwerekana imishinga ku washaka gusuzuma niba politike yarashyizwe mu bikorwa, buri gihe haboneka igisubizo, uretse ko uko UA yubatse binagoye kugira uwo ubaza ibyakozwe n’ibitakozwe.

Muri UA habaye impaka zuko “Comissions ya AU” yahabwa ingufu nyinshi kugira ngo ijye igira initiatives   zibazwa, bihagarikwa no kuvuga ko yaba igiye gusimbura ubusugire bwa za Leta. Ikiza cy’umushinga ni uko ubajije aho ugeze adahabwa igisubizo kituzuye. Ni cyangwa umushinga warakozwe, cyangwa ntiwakozwe. Niba  ari umuhanda, inzira y’ubwato yagombaga kuzenguruka Africa, si politike, ni umushinga. Uwubazwa asubiza ko wakozwe uhari, cyagwa utakozwe udahari. Iyo bigeze ku mishinga, haza izindi mpaka zo kubaza aho abaterankunga bazaturuka, cyane cyane kandi bo hanze. Birasaba UA gutekerereza ku buryo bwagutse, igakorera mu buryo bugufi « Penser globalement, agir localement », Leta zigakorera mu Turere « Communautés régionales » zigakorera muri iyo njyana « rythme ». Nk’urugero, ku muhanda wambukiranya Africa, ku mpande izo ari zo zose, buri gihugu gishobora gukora inzira ikinyuramo ariko muri gahunda rusange nyafurika.

UA ishobora kutaba Leta muri Leta, ntinabe Umuryango uciririste “UA minimaliste” ikaba Leta nini “Super-Etat”, idasimbuye ubusugire bw’izindi Leta Inama Nkuru y’Abakuru ba za Leta ikomeyeho. Iyo Leta nini ikaba hari icyo irusha izindi Leta ziyigize. Kugeza ubu UA ntiramenya uko ishobora kubana n’amahame y’ubusugire bwa za Leta, ay’imbibi zitavogerwa n’ayo kutivanga mu miyoborere ya za Leta.

USA, EU na Leta ziyigize zigira ububasha ku isi hose kuko zibitse ubukungu bw’ibihugu byinshi n’ubukungu bwite bw’ibikomangoma. Iyo bigeze kuri izo Leta ibihugu byinshi bitakaza akavungukira k’ubusugire bwabyo kugira ngo bishobore kuyoborwa no kumvira. UA ntishobora gutegeka ubukungu bw’isi, ariko igomba kugira aho ikura izindi mbaraga ishobora gukangisha bibaye ngombwa. Leta n’ibihugu, kugira ngo bibemo bigomba kugira nibura agashami kamwe k’ubusugire bwayo byivanaho, kagashyirwa kuri UA. N’akabango gato kava, kakomorwa ku busugire bwa Leta kaha imbaraga UA.

4.Ese nta muti mwatanga kugira ngo African Union izabe yihagije mu gihe runaka kiri imbere ?

Prof Nzeyimana : Africa ikimara kwigenga yashatse gutangirira ubuzima aho abayikolonizaga bari bageze kandi n’ubu niko bikimeze. Africa ntirashobora guhuza ubushobozi yo yifitiye n’ibyo ikeneye, cyangwa se ngo nibura ikinyuranyo kibe gito cyane. Mu kerekezo 2063 cya UA harimo n’amahame y’ibitekerezo by’ubukungu ashohora kuba yaranarengeje igihe. Mu mitekerereze yo muri Africa harimo kuzamura ubukungu binanyuze  mu gishoro giturutse ahandi « investissements etrangers ». Ibyo byari byo mu bihe bya Adam Smith  yandika igitabo ke muri 1776.

Ahereye ku byariho icyo gihe, yerekanye ko ubukire bw’ibihugu bunaturuka ku mitungo y’ibindi bihugu. Icyo gihe byari byo kuko ibihugu ubu bikize byavanaga imitungo mu bindi bihugu, atari inguzanyo, nta misoro, mu Isi itagira impipaka, mu bucakara n’imirimo y’agahato, nyuma bigaragaye ko gukoresha abacakara bihenda kurusha imashini, babasimbuza  “technologies”, yihutisha umurimo. Ibihugu « les Nations » bimaze gukira bishyiraho imipaka, bishyiraho amabanki, byemeza ko amafaranga n’ubukungu bigomba kuba no kunyuzwa muri za banki, uyavanyeyo akagomba kuzayishyura ashyizeho n’inyungo.

Africa n’abihutira amafaranga aturutse mu mabanki no hanze hose basa n’abiyibagiza ko banki idatanga amafaranga ahubwo iyacuruza, ko uyafashe agomba kuba afite uburyo na we bwo kuyacuruza kandi bwisumbuye ku bwa banki, ko banki iguha amafaranga yabanje kureba niba ifite ingufu ziruta uwo igiye kuyaha inamufiteho ubushobozi n’uburyo bwo kumwishyuza. Africa ikunze kwihamagarira abazana amafaranga iwayo. Ntawunguka amafaranga aho we ubwe atayashoye. Ingero zirahari, aho igihugu gifata inguzanyo, nyuma ukumva ngo amafaranga yaburiwe irengero kandi Leta izi neza ko azishyurwa, aho Leta zafashe inguzanyo ubu zikaba zisaba kuvanirwaho kuzazishyura…

Keretse habayeho kwiteriranya ubucuruzi n’ubugizi bwa neza. Africa yari ikwiye kuba ishyize ubugwaneza ku ruhande. Muri ibyo, imvugo ngo « coopération, partenariat » na yo si yo cyane kuko bigoye gufatanya n’uwo mutanganya ubushobozi. Aragufasha cyangwa ukamufasha. Muri izo “cooperations” ziri hagati ya Africa n’indi migabane, ntawuravangura neza ufasha undi koko.

Africa isabwa gujya mu isoko rimwe ryaguye, ikaba kandi igomba kurihuriramo n’ubukungu budasa « économies assymétriques ». Mu isoko ryaguye hazamo n’ipiganwa. Muri uko gupiganwa Africa ikunze kugaruka ku byo ifite bisa n’umwihariko wayo « avantages comparatifs ».

 Ibyo kubihugiraho byonyine byari byo mu bihe bya David Ricardo muri 1817 ubukungu bw’Isi bukikubiwe n’ibihugu bike. Muri ibi bihe ubukungu ni bwinshi, ibyo igihugu kibuze gishobora kubisimbuza ibindi, cyangwa bikavumburwa n’ahandi. Abanyafurrika ubwabo bakunze kuvuga ko ari isoko rinini, kandi bafite ubukungu “économies” busa. Guhahirana byabungura bikanagirira akamaro abaturage ba Africa.

Ayo magambo “coopéation”, partenariat, “libre echange” ntavuga kimwe, bitewe n’uruhande uhererereyo. Mu bukungu bw’Isi, hari ibihugu byamaze gufata umurongo w’ibitekerezo, bikorera mu bukungu bushingiye ku nyungu, buri wese n’icyo yakoze, n’aho ashobora kugeza imbaraga ze zose, na Leta ntibiyibuze gupiganwa n’abaturage bayo, ariko yakira ikagaruka igafasha abaturage bayikeneyemo n’abandi bose bayigana. Hari ibindi bihugu byahisemo gukorera mu wundi murongo w’ibitekerezo.

Kuri byo, igihugu ni cyo gikira, bika byitwa ko igihugu ari abaturage bose. Haracyashakishwa umurongo Africa iriho, waba muri iyo cyangwa waba uwayo. Icyo gushyirwa ku ruhande, Africa ntabwo ari “Capitaliste». «Capitalisme » si amafaranga, ni uruhurirane rw’imico myinshi: gukora cyane ariko uzi isoko ritagura umurimo, ahubwo rigura umusaruro, bivuga ko ari ugusarura byinshi byatwaye umurimo muke. Abanyafurika baracyavunikaa bagasarura bike. Ni ukunganyisha ibyo ukeneye n’ibyo ufite, kubara byose, n’ibitabarwa, n’ibitabarika, … Africa hari byinshi ifite, inakora ariko bitabarwa mu bukungu bwayo kuko ikigereranyo cy’ubukungu Isi igenderaho cyashyizweho n’abarebera ubukungu mu ifaranga gusa.

Umwanzuro kw’ibyo, ni uko Africa idakorera mu mico y’ubukungu babara byose “capitalisme”, ariko igacuruzanya n’indi migabane ikorera mu bukungu bubara byose, n’ibitabarika. Ibyo biracyahombya Africa, kuko ikorera mu bukungu budasa, n’ubundi butareshya.

5.Indi miryango ihuza ibihugu by’imigabane runaka ifite urwego rwiza iriho (Union Europeene…) ni ibiki Umuryango w’ibihugu bya Africa wakwigira kuri yo?

Prof Nzeyimana : Ukuramba no kurama kwa Africa kwagombye kuba birimo n’imbaraga nyinshi Africa n’Abanyafurika bifitemo. Biragaragara: nta we uhura n’Umunyafurika uyu nyawe ngo abure gutangarira umuntu, ubuntu bwuzuye, nkunze kwita « Humanité adulte ». Abantu nk’abo amasomo bashaka gukura hanze yagombye kuba ari make.

Naho kuri UA, hari aho nigeze gutanga ikiganiro mpereye  ku gitabo nanditse « L’Afrique et son concept », -Amazone online- , muri icyo kiganiro harimo n’abakomoka muri America y’Epfo n’iyo hagati, barambwira ngo nibura Africa, yo ifite gahunda imwe. Nshaka gusa n’uwumva ko Imiryango ya Africa « communautés régionales» na UA ari intambwe yatewe kera ariko izanageza Africa kure. Africa yagerageje bihagije ingero ivana hanze, ireka  iz’ivana iwayo, ku buryo ubu yari ikwiye kwicara hamwe, ikiheraho, yo ubwayo.

Niba Africa ivuga ko ifite ibyangombwa byose kugira ngo itere imbere, ariko ikaba itarabigeraho, hagomba kuba hari ikibura. Africa ifite ibintu, ifite abanyabwenge bo ku rwego rwo hejuru cyane, mu bumenyi bunyuranye, kandi b’inararibonye « expérience », ifite za programmes, ariko iyo bigeze kuri « organisation », Africa ubona idakomeza.

Kuri Africa ik’ibanze byose biheraho bikanagarukaho ni «Umutima wuzuye urugwiro ». Ibyo « physique » yita isanzure, mu mitekerereze y’Abanyafurika umuntu ari we wisanzura, akisanzura mu biriho byose : ibintu-ahantu-ibihe (univers-temps-espace), ntibiriho, ni ibye.

Umuhanga akaba n’Umupadiri ukomoka muri Cameroun witwa  Engerber Mveng yahoze ari Umwarimu wange.

Twigeze kumutumira ariko tubanza kwisegura ko ashobora kuba nta gihe afite, aratubwira, ngo « Igihe, ni jye ukiha ».  Ibyo yubatse Africa, ni na yo mpamvu nta gihugu, nta baturage, nta Leta ya Africa yigeze ishidikanya kuri UA, bitandukanye n’indi miryango yo ku yindi migabane, aho kwinjiramo atari ubuntu.

Padiri Engerber Mveng

Ku rundi ruhande, uko byumvikana no mu mivugire rusange, usanga Umunyafurika atarashobora kwivangura n’ibiriho, ngo abyitaze, abirebere hirya : byumvikana mu mvugo ngo « Isi yacu », « Africa yacu », « igihugu cyacu», « umuyobozi wacu », iyo « wacu » igaruka kenshi ni ukudashaka kwitandukanya n’ibindi ngo umuntu abirebe abyitaje, abibone uko biri atari uko we ubwe ashaka ko bimera, ni no kubitubya.

 Izo ni filozofiya zigabanyije ku Isi « Subjectivité » – « Objectivité », ariko zigomba gufatirwa hamwe kuko zuzuzanya. Umuganga uvura umuntu na we ni byo aba ari umuntu, ariko atishyize ku ruhande ngo ntiyashobora kumubaga.

Izo ngero ziri ku byo umuntu akora byose, abirimo, ariko ntanabirimo…. Bizaba ngombwa ko mu mitekerere y’Abanyafurika bazanagaruka ku gufata ibiriho ko atari ibyabo, ibintu-ahantu-ibihe, si ibyange, birabarwa, bigira kandi ingero « unité de mesure » bibarirwaho. Africa ntirashaka cyane kubara, kubara n’ibitabarika, no kubivuga mu mvugo ibaritse.

6. Ese ubundi Umuryango wa Africa yunze Ubumwe (AU) uzagera ute ku ntego zawo mu gihe hari ibihugu bigize imiryango y’ibihugu bituranyi (Comnunautés Régionales) bibana nk’abakeba, urugero nka EAC?

Prof Nzeyimana : Ubukeba muri Africa buri ku nzego nyinshi. Buri gihugu cya Africa gifite inshuti zacyo z’ibihugu bikomeye; kenshi Abayobozi Bakuru ba Africa bakora ingendo, bagahurira kuri izo nshuti, buri wese yagiye ku bwe n’igihugu ke. Nyuma nanone abo Bayobozi bakazagaruka muri Africa, bakahanyura hose, kandi bikavugwa cyane, aho bakundwakaza n’aho bagera bashaka gutera ipfunwe, buri wese agasura igihugu ukwacyo n’inyungu afitanye na cyo. Ibyo byateye imvugo ngo “Umubano hagati ya Africa n’igihugu iki n’iki” cy’Uburayi cyagwa Aziya.

Africa ko ari Umugabane, nk’Umugabane ishobora kugirana umubano ite n’igihugu n’Umukuru wacyo? Umukuru w’igihugu atumira abandi benshi ba Africa ate, mu biro bye, kandi ibyo bikaba kuri Africa gusa? Nabo bakajyayo bate, atari uko baba bagiye mu Nama mpuzamigabane?

Ku rwego rwa kabiri haza Imiryango y’Uturere twa Africa (Communautés régionales), mu mpande zose za Africa. Buri Muryango na wo ufite ibihugu byo hanze ufitanye umubano; akenshi usanga intego z’umwe zigerekeranye n’iz’iyindi; hari ibihugu usanga biri mu miryango irenze ibiri. Hari ibiganiro muri UA byigeze kuganira kuri icyo kibazo.

7. Turabashimye Prof. Nzeyimana

Prof Nzeyimana : Nanjye ndabashimiye mugire amahoro.

Jean Pierre NIZEYIMANA
UMUSEKE.RW

11 Ni byo bitekerezo bimaze gutangwa

  • Hehehehe!
    Uyu mugabo ndumva atoroshye. Ngo habaho umushinga-VIP ? Iri jambo ntaryo nari nzi pe. Anyibukije irindi mperutse kumvana Mike Pompeo ngo “Empty promises”. Abanyabwenge bagira udukoryo twabo. Hhhhhhh

  • Benshi mu bayobozi ba Afrika, cyane cyane abanyagitugu, ni abakomisiyoneri ba Mpatsibihugu. Iyo rwose ni partnership. Hagati y’abo bayobozi ku giti cyabo n’abo ba Mpatsibihugu babungabungira inyungu. Nitwe tuba tugomba kwisemurira, bavuga partnership tukamenya icyo bavuze.

    • wavuze bose se uraba iki?

      • Ayinya! Wowe ari wowe watera ibuye kukarere no hejuru yako?!

        • Buriya ubaye uri kuri tell wabibona neza muvandi ntibiba byoroshye ibi bifi binini ntibyatuma gahunda nkiyo igerwaho keretse hangiyeho amayeri no kuyabungabunga

    • uratwigishije

  • Abayobozi ba africa bareba inyungu zabo bakaba nabasahuzi kabuhariwe bagahisha iyo muba partners
    Hari imishinga 2 natangaho urugero ariko inkuru mwahita muyinyonga

  • Mujye mubareka basahure baduteze inzara n ubukene.Tuzajya duhurira muri ya hoteli yakira bose itarobanuye igira icyumba kireshya na metero 2 gusa iherereye i Rusororo.

    • Ngo iherereye i Rusororo? Nayo ntayo uzageramo igihe wakabukiwe nabaturage nimijugujugu yabo. Nkubu uvuze ngo Bokasa cyangwa Kompaore ngo bashyingurwe mugihugu bavukiyemo ninde wakwirengera uwo muvumo?

  • sinzi impamvu ariko kandi. singombwako twumva ibintukimwe. Ark iyo hajemo politike biba arurundi rwego. P ship harimpamvu nyine yagiyeho ibyorero bizwicyane n’abayishyizeho nahotwe turarebera umupira inyumay’ikibuga. Kandi abafana ntitwakogezakimwe. Buriweserero abifate uko abyumva ntakibazo.

  • Ni umuhanga uyu mugabo. You are rights ! Gusa tuzahurirayo mugani wanyu. Thanks alot

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