Gusaba imbabazi; ikiraro gihuza uwahemutse n’uwahemukiwe…Ntibikorwa rimwe bihora bisubirwamo | UMUSEKE

Gusaba imbabazi; ikiraro gihuza uwahemutse n’uwahemukiwe…Ntibikorwa rimwe bihora bisubirwamo

Ibikubiye muri iyi nyandiko ni ibitekerezo bwite bya Dr MUNYANSANGA Olivier/Umwarimu muri PIASS

Gusaba imbabazi byorohereza uzisabwe ndetse na nyiri ukuzisaba, bigahosha amakimbirane. Ese ikabanziriza ikindi ni ikihe? Gusaba imbabazi ni igikorwa gikomeye gitera bamwe ubwoba bwinshi. Mu ndimi z’amahanga nta jambo riboneka risobanura neza “gusaba imbabazi.” Kubera uburemere bwaryo nko mu cyongereza usanga amagambo menshi cyane ashamikiye kuri ryo. Aha twavuga acknowledgment, admission, amends, atonement, concession, confession, repentance, defense, excuse, explanation, extenuation, justification, redress, reparation, sorry… Hari n’irindi ijambo ry’ikilatini rikunzwe gukoreshwa ryitwa mea culpa. Aya magambo yose asobanuye agace gato ko gusaba imbabazi, kwicuza cyangwa kwirega.

Mu gusaba imbabazi harimo kumva, kwemera no kwinjira mu mu mubabaro n’agahinda k’uwo wahemukiye usabwa imbabazi.  Ikindi ni uko umuco w’Abanyarwanda wamenye ko kudasaba imbabazi bishobora gutuma hongera kumeneka amaraso, maze ushyiraho umuhango ukomeye wo “guca inzigo.” Amateka y’u Rwanda n’ahandi, atwereka ko iyo wicirwaga umuntu wakoraga iyo bwabaga kugira ngo nawe uzihorere. Kwihorera byabaga ari ukwica uwo muntu wamwiciye cyangwa se akica umwe wo mu muryango we, igihe yabaga abuze uwabaga yakoze icyo cyaha.

Guca inzigo byakorwaga iyo uwishe yafataga umwanzuro wo kujya kwirega ibwami, ko yishe umuntu akajya gusaba gucishirizwa inzigo we n’umuryango we. Iyo yajyaga gusaba gucishirizwa inzigo, yajyanaga n’umuryango we wose, ku buryo ntawe usigara inyuma ngo adatanga urwaho rwo kwihorera ku muryango biciye umuntu. Gutsimbarara k’ubuhemu ntihabeho gusaba imbabazi byari igisebo gikomeye ku muryango.

Gusaba imbabazi ni umuco wa kimuntu, ku Isi hose birakorwa kuko bigarurira agaciro uwagatakaje bigakingura umuryango w’ejo hazaza, ubuzima bukaba bwakongera gukomeza. Gusaba imbabazi ku bw’icyaha gikomeye cyakozwe ntabwo bikorwa rimwe gusa bikaba birarangiye, bihora bisubirwamo. Bishobora gukorwa nyuma y’igihe kirekire icyaha gikozwe. Urugero ku itariki 1 Nzeri 2019, mu muhango wabereye mu mujyi wa Varsovie mu gihugu cya Pologne nyuma y’imyaka 80, Perezida w’u Budage Frank-Walter Steinmeier yavuze ko igihugu cye gitewe ipfunwe n’amateka yatewe n’ishyaka ry’abanazi ryayoboye Ubudage rigateza intambara ya kabiri y’Isi. Imbere y’abayobozi baturutse mu bihugu bigera kuri 40, ku mugaragararo yavuze ko atazibagirwa ubwicanyi bwakozwe n’abanazi.

Icyo gihe yagize ati “Nsabye imbabazi ku mateka ababaje y’Ubudage ndetse n’uburyo twakomeje kwirengegiza inshingano zo gusaba imbabazi.”

Muri iyi myaka ishize hari abanyarwanda batangiye gusaba imbabazi bavuga ko batewe ipfunwe no kuba ababyeyi babo ntacyo bakoze ngo umugambi wo kurimbura Abatutsi uhagarare. Bakababazwa no kuba harabayeho kurebera abaturanyi b’Abatutsi bicwa ntibashobore kubatabara cyangwa kwamagana ibyo bakorewe. Bakongeraho no kuba baracecetse na byo ubwabyo bigomba gusabirwa imbabazi. Gusaba imbabazi ntabwo bikorwa gusa n’uwakoze icyaha. Ushobora kuzisabira ubwoko, umuryango cyangwa igihugu ukomokamo. Abantu bamwe ntabwo bishimira isabwa ry’imbabazi miu izina ry’imiryango yagize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994.

Hari n’abandi batekereza ko gusaba imbabazi bituma iby’amoko byongera kugaruka kubera imvugo zitari izo gusigirizwa zikoreshwa mu gusaba imbabazi. Ariko hari abandi banyarwanda bavuga ko igitekerezo cyo gusaba imbabazi kitagomba gukinishwa cyangwa kunengwa kuko ari igitekerezo kizana isooko y’amahoro adashira mu mibanire.

Gusaba imbabazi ntabwo byoroshye, hari igihe ibyabaye biba biremereye ku buryo umuntu yanga gusaba imbabazi ashaka kwirwanaho kuko kamere itegeka bamwe kwihagararaho. Rimwe na rimwe abavutse nyuma y’amateka bakavuga bati « ayo mabi ntabwo ari twe twayakoze, yakozwe n’abatubanjirije twebwe ntawe tugomba gusaba imbabazi. »

Buri gihe abahemukiwe ikintu cya mbere bifuza kumva ni ijambo risaba imbabazi kugira ngo bamenye ukuri ku byabaye, bizezwe kandi bahumurizwe ko ibyaha bakorewe bitazongera. Ku itariki ya 13 Nyakanga 2013, Prezida wa Repubulika y’u Rwanda, Paul Kagame mu nama y’umuryango FPR Inkotanyi yavuze ko kuba umuntu yasaba imbabazi mu izina ry’umubyeyi we, mukuru we cyangwa undi wese bagira icyo bapfana wakoze icyaha nta kibazo kirimo.

Gusaba imbabazi ni igikorwa cy’ubutwari ntabwo ari ubugwari cyangwa intege nke. Gusaba imbabazi biravura bigakiza uwahemutse n’uwahemukiwe Gusaba imbabazi bituma uwahemukiwe ashyira intwaro hasi, hakubakwa ikiraro bombi bashobora kwambukiraho. Ntiwababarira utasabye imbabazi ngo mwembi mufatanye mwubake ikiraro gikomeye.

Niba uyu munsi bigaragara ko Inkiko Gacaca zagize umumaro mu gihugu ni uko hari bamwe mu bari bafunzwe bemeye kuvugisha ukuri basaba imbabazi biturutse ku mutima, batanga amakuru yafashije gusobanukirwa bimwe mu byabaye. Amakuru y’ukuri iyo adatangwa ntabwo ubumwe n’ubwiyunge bwari gushoboka, gushyamirana byari gukomeza.

Kwanga kwemera ikosa cyangwa icyaha ni igitutsi, ni ugukomeretsa, ni ugusuzugura uwahemukiwe. Buri gihe uwababajwe, uwakomeretse akenera kumva amagambo asaba imbabazi.

Iyo rero umuntu asabye imbabazi biturutse ku mutima utanga n’amakuru yose afite ku byabaye. Ntabwo ari ugupfa kuvuga ngo nsabye imbabazi abo nahemukiye. Usabye imbabazi agomba no gutanga amakuru afite ku byabaye. Urugero ni nko ku itariki ya 01 Gicurasi 2016, mu cyahoze ari Komini Ntongwe, Perefegitura ya Gitarama, ahiciwe Abatutsi bagera ku bihumbi 70, Umuvugizi w’Itorero rya ADEPR yasabye imbabazi anatanga amakuru. Yagiz’ati “Mpagaze imbere yanyu mvuga nti ‘mutubabarire, mutubabarire, mutubabarire’ kuko twebwe nk’abanyamadini tutashoboye gusohoza inshingano zacu neza nk’uko bikwiye hakaba harabayeho Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994.”

Yatanze n’amakuru avuga ku ruhare rw’umupasiteri witwa Léonce Utazirubanda wari umushumba wa Paruwasi ya Kareba, avuga ko yicishije abakirisitu n’abadiyakoni bagera kuri 50. Ibyo yabivuze kugira ngo hatazabaho gusibanganya ibimenyesto, ahubwo ukuri kugashyirwa ahagaragara.

 

Hari n’umuryango Rwanda Prison Fellowship ushishikariza imfungwa gusaba imbabazi ariko zigatanga n’amakuru ku byabaye. Umwe muri izo mfungwa wari utuye mu karere ka Bugesera Umurenge wa Nyamata, mu gihe cya Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi yari umushumba w’Itorero ry’Ishyirahamwe ry’abakirisitu mu Rwanda yasabye imbabazi abo yiciye ndetse abaha amakuru yose y’uko byagenze.

Yagize ati “Natereranye intama nari nararagijwe, nshyira inkoni y’ubushumba hasi, ahubwo mfata inkoni y’ikibi nyicisha abo nagombaga kurinda, sinari nkiri umuntu nari nabaye inyamanswa, ndasaba imbabazi imiryango y’abo nahemukiye.”

Yatanze amakuru yerekana n’icyobo cyakoreshejwe mu gutaba abantu. Abarokotse Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi bazakomeza gukenera kumva amagambo asaba imbabazi, bazakomeza kubaza impamvu bahemukiwe bakicwa kariya kageni, bazakomeza kubaza amakuru y’ababo kugira ngo babubakire urwibutso. Bazakomeza kandi gushimira ingabo za RPA zahoze ari iz’Umuryango FPR-Inkotanyi zabatabaye zikabahumuriza ko bitazongera. Bazakomeza gushimira bamwe mu bo mu bwoko bw’Abahutu bagize umutima wa kimuntu bakabahisha.

Kugira ngo hakingirwe abana bazavuka mu binyenjana bizaza, Abanyarwanda bagomba gutinyuka kuvuga no kuganira ku mateka yabo nubwo asharira akanatera isoni n’ipfunwe. Perezida wa Komisiyo y’Igihugu y’Ubumwe n’Ubwiyunge, Bishop Rucyahana John yifuza ko urubyiruko rw’u Rwanda rwabwizwa ukuri kw’ibyabaye mu gihugu cyabo, rukabiganiraho mu kuri kugira ngo rufatire hamwe icyerekezo gishya kizima. Abana b’abakoze Jenoside, abakomoka ku bacitse ku icumu ntibazabaragwe inzangano.

 

Ibindi wasoma

  1. Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu, Intwari z’imbanza, zubatse u Rwanda rugahamya igitinyiro, Kigali, 2018.
  2. Fulgence Rubayiza, Guérir le Rwanda de la violence, Ed. L’Harmattan, 1998
  3. Munyansanga Olivier, Rwandan Traditional Religion, Christianity and Islam, perspectives on memory and reconciliation, PhD thesis, University of Geneva, 2017.
  4. Berverly Engel, The Power of Apology: Healing Steps to Transform All Your Relationships, John Wiley and Sons, 2001.
  5. Michael A. Murphy, Memory, Apology, and Reconciliation, <http://www.cpsa-acsp.ca/papers-2008/Murphy,%20Michael.pdf>, April 2020.
  6. The power of apology, <http://www.selfconnection.ca/Descriptions/9780471218920.pdf>, April 2020.

Dr MUNYANSANGA Olivier

7 Ni byo bitekerezo bimaze gutangwa

  • Gusaba imbabazi iyo bihora bisubirwamo, nuko ziba zitatanzwe, cyangwa uzisaba ahora mu nsubiracyaha.

  • Murakoze cyane Pastor Dr. Olivier, ku bw’iyi nyandiko mwatugejejeho. Gusaba imbabazi ni ingenzi kandi ni ngombwa mu gusana ubumwe n’imibanire biba byashenywe n’icyaha cyakozwe.

    Ku bijyanye n’amateka y’u Rwanda byo rwose bikwiriye kumvikana. Birababaje kubona umuntu yica umuturanyi we, uwo biganye, uwo bakoranaga. Hari n’abishe abo mu miryango bashyingiranaga. Umuntu agahora undi ubwoko atahisemo. Genocide yakorewe Abatutsi, 1994 ni icyaha ndengakamere. Ibaze nk’abantu bari mu matorero gikristo, n’abayisilamu. Bose bigishaga urukundo ariko benshi ntibarugaragaje. Imbabazi zizahora zikinewe.

    Mwakoze

  • Dr. Munyansanga arakoze kongera kutugezaho indi nyandiko. Nibyo kugirango amakimbirinane ashire mubantu bagiranye ibibazo, umwe yahemukiye undi, hagomba gusabwa imbabazi. Ni ibintu bitoroshe ariko numva ko ariwo muti wonyine wakemura ibibazo. Bantu benshi nyine batinya gusaba imbabazi kuko ibyo baba bakoze biba biteye isoni, bagashaka gutsimbarara nyine kubwo bakoze bitari byiza. Umuntu akugiriye nabi, biragoye nyine kwongera kumwizera, bikarushirizaho nabwo iyo uwo muntu wagize nabi atigeze asaba imbabazi. Twese abanyafrika tugomba kwiga umuco wo gusaba imbabazi. Ndibaza ko gusaba imbabazi ari byiza cyane, biruhura umutima uwazisabye kandi nuwo basizabye akazitanga araruhuka mu mutima. Kuko ntabwo abantu babiri bagiranye ibibazo kandi batigeze basabana imbazi bakwizerana. Bahora batinyana. Umwe mumutima aba yikeka undi. Uwo bagiriye nabi ahora yibaza ko uwamugiriye nabi ashobora kuzongera kumugirira nabi, nuko agahora yibaza andi ma plans mabi none uwo wamugiriye nabi yaba agihishije. Ikindi nibaza nuko usabwa imbabazi agomba kuzitanga kugirango babashe gufatanya kubaka igihugu no guha urugero rwiza abana bakiri bato. Muri experience mfite, ndibazako nibyiza cyane gutanga imbabazi uwakugiriye nabi azisabye. Ariko nubwo wazitanga ntabwo ari ukuvuga ko ugomba kwibagira ibyabaye. Nico gituma ari byiza cyane guhora twibuka. Kuko kwibuka birigisha. Hari ibyo nsoma kuri Internet rimwe rimwe cangwa nkuva abantu bavuga ngo kuki bakomeza kwibuka Jenocide yabaye muri 1994. Nonese igomba kwibagirana? Nonese bibagiwe ko n’abayahudi bakomeza bibuka Jenocide bakorewe! Ni byiza ko abantu bavugisha ukuri, bakaganira kumateka yabo y’igihugu nubwo nyine ayo mateka asharira. Abana bakiri bato bagomba kubyiga neza mumashuli, n’abana bazavuka nyuma nabo bakabyiga mu mashuli. Ibyabaye byarabaye! Ntamuntu numwe uzabizimanganya! Tugomba twese abanyarwanda kwigira kubyabaye, tugatinyuka tukabivuga, tukanatinyuka tukabazanya ico dufa, igituma tuzirana. Mbese ni igiki? Ko twese turi abirabura, tuvuga ururimi rumwe, u Rwanda rukaba ari urwacu twese, kuko tutavugana ukuri? Muri make nashakaga kuvuga ko ijambo gusaba imbabazi ari ijambo ryiza, ntabwo kudutera isoni, ntanubwo tugomba gutsimbarara kubugoryi nubuhemu ngo turatinya gusaba imbabazi ngo maze dufatanye kubaka u Rwanda rwacu twese kugirango turuteze imbere. Umuntu wumva wese ko ari umunyarwanda agomba kumva ko uruhare rwo guteza imbere igihugu cacu, bimureba nawe, bitureba twese nk’abanyarwa. Kuko aho umuntu yaja hose kw’isi, bagenda bamuza origine ye, aho yaturutse. Ibaze rero u,untu agiye avuga amateka yabaye kera y’ u Rwanda, ariko akanavuga n’amateka meza, ibyo u Rwanda rugezeho, ico akorera u Rwanda ngo afashe mukuruteza imbere. Kuko hari byinshi cyane yabona. Erega no gutanga inama nziza yubaka igihugu cacu, uba nabyo utanze umusanzu wo kubaka igihugu. Reka rero bavandimwe twige umuco wo gusaba imbabazi no kureka kugira nabi no kuja mubintu bidafite akamaro, ahubwo duharanire gukora byiza, duteze imbere u Rwanda rwacu na Africa yacu.

  • Gusaba imbabazi uribeshya rwose Dr kuko imbabazi zisabwa uzigira sinon ntacyo bimaze. Urugero rwahafi ni Kizito wazisabye akerekwa isi yose ariko ntibyamubujije kwicwa.
    Mujye mubeshya abanyamahanga kuko abanyarwanda turaziranye.

    • Uretse ko Kizito atanishwe yiyahuye ariko gusaba imbabazi kwe byari imitwe kuko yazihawe akikomereza ubugambanyi ku gihugu cye ibintu mu bindi bihugu gihanishwa igihano cy’urupfu.

  • Iyo abategetsi basaba imbabazi mu izina ly’igihugu birumvikana yuko Leta ihoraho n’iyo abaategetsi bahindutse. Ibyo Leta ikoze iyisimbuye iyigira ibyayo. Naho ku baantu basanzwe, icyaha ni gatozi. Ikibazo rero cy’imbabazi ni ingorabahizi cyane cyane kubyerekeye amahano yagwiliye Urwanda. Urugero: sindumva abitwa Polisi na Dusaidi basaba imbabazi z’abacu bishwe nyuma ya 30 mata, ubwo baribamaze kubuza LONI gutabara abicwaga! Guhora usaba imbabazi rero nabyo nta gaciro bifite yuko uba atazihawe!

  • Gusaba imbabazi no kuzitanga ni igikorwa cyiza iyo bikozwe bivuye ku mutima. Kimwe mu bituma hasabwa imbabazi ni ukugirango horoshywe ingaruka biba byaragize kuwakorewe icyaha ndetse bikanoroshya ikidodo uwakoze icyaha aba afite. Imbabazi za hano iwacu nzigiraho ibu bibazo: ese abazisaba babikura ku mutima? Ese nibo bonyine bakazisabye? Ese abazitanga babikura ku mutima cyangwa ni kubw’inyungu za politiki?
    Imbabazi iyo zisabwe niyo zitanzwe ubundi ntiwakavuzengo bihore bikorwa iyo byakozwe mu kuri kuvuye ku mutima, ntabwo ari byizako uwakoze ikosa ahora buri gihe asaba imbabazi yamaze guhabwa kuko byaba ari ugutoneka uwo yakoreye icyaha guhora abimwibutsa kandi sina byizw kuko byatuma uwakoze icyaha ahorana ikidodo kitarangira. Ku bwange iyi nyandiko yuyu mugabo nkaba nyigaye kuko ibitekerezo biyikubiyemo ntibigamije kubaka umuco wo gusaba imbabazi no kuzitanga ahubwo bigamije kwimika umuco wo guhakishwa no guhakisha imbabazi kandi ibi ntibibaho ubundi. Ibyaha byabaye mu gihugu cyacu birakomeye cyane ariko mbabazwa nuko tubiha isura dushaka bitewe naho duhagaze cyangwa n’icyo tugamije, ariko ntibyari bikwiye, niba turi abanyakuri koko nkuko uwanditse iyi nyandiko yashatse kubyerekana, niturarame turebe hejuru nibwo tuzunga umuryango nyarwanda kuko wakomerekejwe na benshi kandi mu buryo bwinshi bunyuranye, nta nyagupfa ntana nyagukira twese turi bene kanyarwanda. Twamaganye gusaba imbabazi no kuzitanga bya nyirarureshwa, ayo maco y’inda ntakimikwe iRwanda. Ibya komisiyo y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge byo sinabigarukaho kuko ni igikoresho cya politiki, ba Rucyahana bazabanze bihane ibyaha byabo bityo bafashe abandi gusaba imbabazi nabo bakeye ku mutima.

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