Ibyataburuwe mu matongo: Uburyo bwo kumenya amateka ataranditswe – UMUSEKE
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Ibyataburuwe mu matongo: Uburyo bwo kumenya amateka ataranditswe

Buri wese wize amateka bamwigishije ko hari uburyo butatu bw’ingenzi bwo kuyiga, inyandiko (Written sources), kumva uko abakuru bumvise ibya kera babivuga (Oral sources) no gucukura, kuvumbura ibyatabwe mu matongo (Archeology).

Uyu muhanga agomba kwitonda kugira ngo atagira iicyo atwara aya magufwa n'ibintu biyakikije

Uyu muhanga agomba kwitonda kugira ngo atagira iicyo atwara aya magufwa n’ibintu biyakikije

Umuseke wahisemo kubagezaho uko abahanga mu mateka biga ibyabayeho mu bihe byashize bifashishije ubumenyi bahabwa n’ibisigazwa by’amatungo, ibihingwa, cyangwa ibikoresho aba kera bakoreshaga mu buzima bwabo bwa buri munsi.

Mu kwiga ibyaranze amateka y’abantu hifashishijwe ibyataburuwe mu mateka bisaba ubuhanga, igihe n’amafaranga bihagije kugira ngo ikigambiriwe kigerweho.

Abahanga muri iki gice biga imbanzirizamateka (Prehistory) kandi bakiga amateka (History). Biga ukuntu abantu ba mbere  bifashishaga amabuye babaga baracuzemo ibikoresho bitandukanye kugira ngo babashe guhiga, kubaga inyama no guhangana n’inyamaswa zabateraga, ubu hakaba hashize imyaka miliyoni 3.3.

Birazwi ko Imbanzirizamateka ariyo ndende yaranze ibihe byahise abantu babayemo hamwe n’ibibakikije kuko yihariye 99%.

Ibi byemezwa n’uko guhera mu gihe abantu ba kera bakoreshaga ibikoresho bikoze mu mabuye (Paleolithic) kugeza ubwo abantu bamenye kwandika, hashize igihe kirekire cyane.

Mu kwiga ibi byose abahanga mu byataburuwe mu matongo baba bagamije kumenya uko imico n’imigenzo y’abantu yagiye ikura kandi ikagira ingaruka ku mibanire yabo n’abandi ndetse n’ibidukikije.

Kwiga uko biriya byose byagenze, abahanga basuzuma ibyo bataburura mu matongo, mu buvumo, munsi y’inyanja n’ahandi hantu baba basuzumye bagasanga hashobora kuba haratabitswemo ibintu runaka byabafasha kumenya ibyaranze ibihe byashize ubwo amateka atari yatangira kwandikwa.

Mu gusuzuma ibyo yabonye, umuhanga agomba kuba afite ubumenyi buhagije ku bindi bintu nk’Amateka y’Ubukorikori bwaranze abantu runaka (Art History), kumenya amoko y’abantu (Ethnology), ubumenyi bw’Isi (Geography), ubumenyi bw’imiterere y’Isi (Geology), indimi (Linguistics), kumenya ibimenyetso n’amarenga (Semiology), ubugenge (Physics), ikorabuhanga n’itumanaho (Information Sciences), ubutabire (Chemistry), ibarurishamibare (Statistics), kwiga uko ibidukikije bya kera byari biteye (Paleoecology), kwiga uko ibinyabuzima bya kera byari biteye (Paleozoology), uko ibimera bya kera byari biteye (Paleobotany) n’ibindi.

Bivugwa ko ubu buhanga bwatangijwe n’Umwongereza witwa Richard Colt Hoare na mugenzi we William Cunnington mu 1808.

Cunnington yize abyitondeye amabuye n’ibindi byose byaranze igihe mbanzirizamateka cy’amabuye (Neolithic) no mu gihe cy’abahanga ‘Bronze Age’ mu gihugu cye, abikorera isesengura rihagije kandi abika ibyo yari yabonye.

Mu kwiga ibyataburuwe mu matongo abahanga bitondera uko bacukura ubutaka buba butwikiriye ikintu runaka baba bashaka kuko ubwo butaka nabwo buba bufite amateka yabwo kandi bakibaza ingaruka bwagize kuri icyo kintu nyirizina.

Ubu buhanga bwo kwiga uko ubutaka bwagiye bwigereka ku bundi bwitwa (Stratigraphy) bufasha mu gupima igihe runaka byafashe kugira ngo umuhiro (Strate) umwe ubeho n’igihe byafashe kugira ngo undi ubeho, gutyo gutyo …

Amakuru avuyemo afasha abahanga kumenya niba igikoresho runaka bavumbuye mu muhiro runaka cyarangijwe n’igihe cyawumazemo (umuhiro) kandi bikabafasha kugenekereza bakamenya isano ishobora kuba hagati y’igihe ubwo butaka bwabereyeho n’igihe icyo kintu (Artifact) cyabugereyemo.

Imihiro iri hasi mu kuzimu akenshi iba ari minini mu bugari kandi ari iya kera dukurikije uko isuri  yagiye iyigerekeranya uko ibihe byagiye bisimburana.

Nk’uko twigeze kubyandika, nta kintu na kimwe abahanga mu byataburuwe mu matongo bemerewe kwangiza aho bari gukorera ubushakashatsi kandi icyo babonye cyose baracyandika, bakagiha nomero ikiranga, igihe bakivumburiye, aho bakivumbuye, igihe bemeza ko cyabereyeho, abagikoreshaga, n’icyo cyakoraga.

Gukora ibi bituma babasha kwiga mu by’ukuri isano iri hagati y’ikintu n’ikindi. Iyo babonye ko hari ikibura basubira mu bushakashatsi bwabo kugeza igihe bazakibonera bityo umugambi wabo ukaba uruzuye.

Aka kazi bamwe bavuga ko ariko gafata igihe kirekire kurushaho mu kazi kabaho, gatwara amafaranga menshi  za Leta, bamwe bakemeza ko iki ari kimwe mu  bituma za Kaminuza zo mu bihugu bikiri mu nzira y’amajyambere zitabyigisha cyane.

Urugero mu Rwanda ubu  habarirwa abahanga muri ibi bintu bake cyane  umwe muribo akaba ari Prof Antoine Nyagahene. Undi Munyarwanda mu  bahanga muri ibi yari  nyakwigendera  Prof Kanimba witabye Imana mu bihe byashize.

Aho bacukuye haba hari ibikoresho byose birimo na za mudasobwa na microscope zo gupoma za utunyabuzima runaka bashaka kwigaho

Aho bacukuye haba hari ibikoresho byose birimo na za mudasobwa na microscope zo gupoma za utunyabuzima runaka bashaka kwigaho

Archeology mu Rwanda naho yerekanye ko abantu ba kera bakoreshaga ibikoresho bikoze mu mabuye mu buzima bwabo bwa buri munsi.

Mu bushakashatsi Prof Nyagahene yakoreye ahitwa mu Masangano ya Mukungwa na Nyabarongo (ubu ni  mu Karere ka Musanze mu Murenge wa Vunga) yahasanze ibikoresho bikozwe mu mabuye abakurambere bifashishaga mu gucura no guhiga.

Prof Nyagahene asanga gukora ubushakashatsi mu mateka y’u Rwanda hifashishijwe ibyataburuwe mu matongo bishoboka ariko ngo amafaranga arabura.

Yabwiye Umuseke ko yifuje gukora ubushakashatsi ku byo abaturage bita ‘imva ya gihanga’ ariko ngo ubushobozi bw’amafaranga buba imbogamizi.

Ibyataburuwe mu matongo mu Rwanda byerekana ko abari bahutuye bakoreshaga amabuye abaje impande ebyiri ( bifaces), andi asa n’ayigondoye imbere akabafasha mu gucukura, guhiga, kubaga n’ibindi.

Ibi ngo byakorwaga mu gihe bita ‘Sangoen’.

Nyuma hakurikiyeho ibindi bihe abanyamateka bita Le Magosien (Aha hakoreshwaga amabuye mato) , Tshitolien (Aho abantu babaga mu mashyamba mato), na Wiltonien (Iki kikaba igihe bahuza cyane cyane n’ukuntu abantu babanaga n’ibibakikije nk’umukenke).

Bernard Lugan mu gitabo L’Histoire du Rwanda, De la Pré-Histore ā nos jours, ku ipaji ya 25 avuga ko imbanzirizamateka y’akarere u Rwanda ruherereyemo yarekana igihe bakoreshaga amabuye yarangiye hagati ya 500  na 200 mbere ya Yesu Kristu.

Muri rusange iyo iri somo ritazakubaho, abanyamateka bari bube babura imwe mu nkingi za mwamba zuzuza ubuhanga bwabo.

Kumenya uko iterambere ry’imiryango y’Abanyamisiri, Abayahudi, Abanyababuloni, Abanyamali, Abamonomotapa, Abaroma, Abagereki, Abanyarwanda n’abandi byari bugorane cyane cyangwa se bikaba bituzuye.

Bigora umucamanza guca urubanza ashingiye ku bihamya bituzuye ariko iyo afite inyandiko, amajwi, amafoto, ibikoresho byakoreshejwe n’uregwa mu cyaha runaka nk’ubwicanyi,… biramworohera gufata umwanzuro. Uku niko abanyamateka bakora iyo bahuza ibyanditse mu bitabo n’ibyataburuwe mu matongo.

Aba bahanga bo mu gihugu cya Jordania bakoresha ibyuma bya GPS (Global Positioning System) mu gupima ubutaka

Aba bahanga bo mu gihugu cya Jordania bakoresha ibyuma bya GPS (Global Positioning System) mu gupima ubutaka

Jean Pierre NIZEYIMANA
UMUSEKE.RW

1 Comment

  1. Rusagara

    June 15, 2016 at 8:38 am

    UMUSEKE murakoze cyane kutugezaho ibijyane n’ibyavumbuwe mu matongo yo mu Rwanda. Nubwo ari bike, twakwifuza ko Prof. Antoine NYAGAHENE yashakirwa ubwo bushobozi bw’amafaranga, kugirango akomeze ubu bushakashatsi, buzadufasha kumenya neza Imbanzirizamateka ( Prehistory) n’Amateka ( History) nyakuri by’U Rwanda. Ibi na none bizafasha gutsindagira ireme rya gahunda ya ” Ndi Umunyarwanda”, tuve mu mateka Abakoloni batwigishije ko U Rwanda rwabayeho ejo bundi ngo kuko nta mateka yanditse tugira. Ibi birerekana ko U Rwanda rwabayeho na mbere ya Yezu Krisitu, abo bakoloni nabo bagishakisha kubaka ibihugu byabo (Roman Empire). Murakoze

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