Icyakorwa ngo inguzanyo zitangwa na Banki zigirire akamaro abazihabwa zinazamure ubukungu | | UMUSEKE
  • 26/10/2020 11:31 55

Icyakorwa ngo inguzanyo zitangwa na Banki zigirire akamaro abazihabwa zinazamure ubukungu

Inyandiko ya Dr MUNYANSANGA Olivier/Umwarimu muri PIASS

Kuguza, kuguriza, kugurizwa, gufata umwenda cyangwa ideni ni amagambo amenyerewe mu mvugo nyarwanda. Abahanga mu iterambere bavuga ko inguzanyo ishobora kugufasha gutera imbere cyangwa igashyira uwayifashe mu mutego atazivanamo. Kwaka inguzanyo muri iki gihe ni gahunda imenyerewe ariko isaba kwandikirirana no kugirana amasezerano hagati y’uguriza n’ugurizwa. Guhabwa inguzanyo bigira akamaro iyo uyihawe abanje gushishoza mbere yo kuyifata no kugira umutima w’ubushake bwo kuzayishyura.

Karuranga Aimable umuyobozi mukuru w’urwego rwubaka ubushobozi bw’ibigo by’imari iciriritse mu Rwanda (AMIR) avuga ko “umwenda cyangwa inguzanyo ituma biryoha cyane mu gihe cyo kuyifata kuko biha umuntu ubushobozi burenze ubwo yari asanganywe bityo akabasha gukora icyo yifuza. Nyamara ubwo buryohe bw’ideni ntabwo butinda, buhita buyoyoka mu gihe gitoya bugasimburwa n’inshingano zo kwishyura, ndetse akenshi bikagabanya ubushobozi bw’imibereho umuntu yari yasanganywe.”

Ibi bisobanura ko; uko byagenda kose umuntu ufashe umwenda uko waba ungana kose agomba kuwishyura hirindwa ingaruka zitari nziza zishobora kuvuka. Ikigaragara ni uko mu kwaka inguzanyo nubwo bisa nk’aho bimenyerewe, hari bamwe baba badafite amakuru ahagije yo gukoresha no kwishyura inguzanyo nyuma haboneka abananirwa kwishyura.

Benshi bafata inguzanyo bishimye ariko ibyo byishimo ntibimara kabiri

 

Bamwe bamara gufata amafaranga y’inguzanyo muri banki, mu bimina, mu bavandimwe cyangwa mu nshuti, bagaterera agati mu ryinyo, bakirengagiza amasezerano ndetse bagatangira no gukwepa mu gihe bahamagawe kugira ngo bishyure. Ariko hari n’abandi bibagirwa kwishyura kubera ibindi baba bahugiyemo.

Niyo mpamvu mu binyamakuru bitandukanye cyangwa ahamanikwa amatangazo, nta munsi washira utumvise amatangazo y’imitungo igomba gutezwa cyamunara. Imyinshi muri iyo mitungo usanga ari iy’abantu bafashe inguzanyo ariko bakananirwa kwishyura.

Kubera impamvu zo kwambura no gutinda kwishyura inguzanyo nyinshi zafashwe mu makoperative “Umurenge SACCO” hirya no hino mu gihugu, Inama y’Igihugu y’Umushyikirano wa 16, yateraniye muri Kigali Convention Center ku wa 13-14 m’Ukuboza 2018, yasabye ko hafatwa ingamba zo kwishyuza vuba abambuye bose “Umurenge SACCO.”

Ku ikubitiro, miliyari eshanu kuri miliyari 10 z’amafaranga y’u Rwanda zahise zishyurwa. Bikerekana ko kutishyura inguzanyo ari ugusenya ubukungu bw’igihugu. Umugenzuzi mukuru w’imari ya leta, Obadiah Biraro yabishimiye Banki nkuru y’u Rwanda (BNR) yabashije kugaruza ziriya miliyari.

Perezida wa Repubulika y’u Rwanda, Paul Kagame ashimangira ko ayo mafaranga agomba kugaruzwa akagirira akamaro amakoperative “Umurenge SACCO” kugira ngo haboneke amafaranga yo kuzamura imibereho y’abatishoboye nk’uko ari yo ntego yashyiriweho.

Guverineri wa Banki nkuru y’u Rwanda John Rwangombwa asobanura ko imwe mu mpamvu ituma ibigo bimwe by’imari bihomba, biterwa “n’ingeso mbi Abanyarwanda bamwe bafite yo kutishyura inguzanyo. Akaba ari na yo mpamvu banki na zo zizamura inyungu ku nguzanyo kubera gutinya igihombo.”

Birumvikana ko uwagujije iyo ananiwe kwishyura inguzanyo n’inyungu yayo, ikigo cyamugurije kirahomba. Nubwo cyateza mu cyamunara ingwate, kiba gihombye umukiriya wacyo. Ahenshi uwahawe inguzanyo muri banki, yishyura yongeyeho inyungu iri hagati ya 11%-18%, hari n’ibigo bimwe byaka inyungu ya 21%.

Biravugwa cyane ko iyi nyungu ku nguzanyo yakwa iri hejuru cyane ugereranyije nuko ubukungu bwifashe mu gihugu. Gufata inguzanyo ukananirwa kwishyura biteza ingaruka nyinshi zitari nziza hari bamwe bahitamo guhunga, kugurisha ibyabo, gukura abana mu ishuri, guhindura amazina, kurwara indwara z’umutima, n’ibindi… hari n’abandi bamwe batinya kwaka inguzanyo. Ni yo mpamvu hagomba kubaho guhugurwa kw’ikoreshwa no kwishyura inguzanyo, imyumvire ikaba yahinduka.

Hakorwa nibura ibintu bine:

  1. Hagomba kubaho ubukangurambaga bwimbitse mu kwigisha abantu gukoresha no kwishyura inguzanyo kuko kubona inguzanyo ari serivisi igomba guhabwa umuturage wese nubwo bamwe bayitinya.
  2. Gushimangira indangagaciro yo kubahiriza amasezerano no kwishyura inguzanyo iyariyo yose iba yatanzwe.
  3. Amabanki n’ibigo by’imari byagabanya inyungu isabwa ku nguzanyo, bigakurikiranira hafi uwayihawe hirindwa ingaruka zo kuzananirwa kwishyura.
  4. Uwahuye n’ikibazo gituma akererwa kwishyura inguzanyo, agomba kugana ikigo cyamugurije akagisobanurira impamvu yatumye ananirwa kwishyura.

 

Ibindi wasoma:

1) Nathalie Sarthou-Lajus, L’Éthique de la dette, P.U.F, 1997.

2) Fontaine, L’économie morale. Pauvreté, crédit, confiance dans l’Europe pré-industielle, Gallimard, NRF, essai, 2008.

3) Aimé Muyombano, Contribution of Umwalimu Savings and Credit Cooperative (Umwalimu Sacco) On Socio –Economic Development of Teachers in Rwanda in International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 6, Issue 12, December 2016.

4) Impact of Access to Financial Services on Business Development in Rwanda, PDF, August 2018 <www.researchgate.net> publication.

5) Rwanda‘s financial inclusion success story Umurenge Saccos PDF <www.afi-global.org> publications.

Dr MUNYANSANGA Olivier/Umwarimu muri PIASS

2 Ni byo bitekerezo bimaze gutangwa

  • Dr Munyansanga arakoze cyane kuri iyi nyandiko yerekeranye n’inguzanyo. Ndabona harimwo ibyigisho byinshi. Nibyo koko hari abantu benshi bafata inguzanyo bamara kuyifata bakayikoresha, bamwe bikabahombera kuko baba batarabanjije kwiga neza uko bakwiye kuyikoresha, nyuma bikabaviramwo igihombo bakabura nuko bishura Bank yabagurije. Nkunze cyane ariya ma recommandations bank zafata kugirango mbere yuko baha abantu inguzanyo bagomba no guhugura abantu nibyerekeranye n’inguzanyo, kugirango uyifata ayifate azi ico akora kuko iyo abantu benshi bafashe inguzanyo bikabananira kuzishura, bashobora no guhomba ibyo bari batunze Banki zikabigurisha. Ntabwo twifuza kubona abantu bafashe inguzanyo bagira ibibazo bya rutura batabasha kwivanamwo nico gituma ziriya recommandations Dr Munyansanga yanditse wenda nizindi ziyongereyeho zikozwe byafasha cyane abantu bafata amadeni kandi bigafasha naza Bank zitanga inguzanyo, maze abanyarwanda bagakomeza kubakira hamwe igihugu cyabo neza.

  • Inyungu ya 11-18% irorohereza impande zombi ariko iyo irenze 18% burya biba byungura uruhande rumwe arinako bihombya urundi ruhande. Iyo bigenze bitya rero niho mission ya government ya social concern igaragara ikora intervention. Ni byiza ko BNR as government agency yakemura iki kibazo. For example Unguka bank yaka more than 20% nako ni 21% murumva itagira uruhare mugutuma abaturage batishimira ubuyobozi bishyiriyeho? Please BNR adjust iki kibazo. Both sides zunguke ariko zitavunanye. Murakoze!

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