Ubwisanzure ntibusimbuzwa, … n’ubigerageje ntahirwa ubuziraherezo | UMUSEKE

Ubwisanzure ntibusimbuzwa, … n’ubigerageje ntahirwa ubuziraherezo

Iyi nyandiko ni IGITEKEREZO bwite cya CYUZUZO Aimé Christian; Umunyeshuri muri Kaminuza yigenga ya Kigali (ULK), mu ishami ry’Ububanyi n’Amahanga (International Relations).

Ubwisanzure, ingingo itavugwaho rumwe na benshi; ingingo yabaye imbarutso yo guhantanura benshi mu bihangange bakambarira inshabari aho bambariye inkanda; ingingo kandi ishimangira ubukomere bwayo igihe rubanda rwahagurutse rushaka ubwo bwisanzure, bakabiharanira babizi neza ko urwo rugamba bishoyemo ruzahindura byinshi; ubutunzi bwabo bugahinduka umuyonga, benshi bakahasiga ubuzima maze hagashimangirwa ko burya koko: “Icyo umutima ushaka amata aguranwa itabi”.

Mu nkuru yo muri  Bibiliya izwi na benshi  dusanga mu gitabo cy’Intangiriro; itubwira ukuntu Imana yaremye Adamu nyuma igakurikizaho na Eva, irangije ibatuza mu busitani bwiza bwa Edeni; ibyo biremwa bishya yari imaze kurema tubwirwa ko byahawe uburenganzira bwo kugenga aho byari bimaze gutuzwa.

Nubwo byahawe ububasha bwose muri Edeni hari igiti babujijwe kuryaho.[… ]  inkuru y’uburyo n’amayeri  inzoka yakoresheje ishuka Eva ngo arye ku giti cyiswe “ Icy’ubugingo” ingaragariza neza ko Muntu ahora afite inyota yo kugira uburenganzira ku kintu adakunze guhabwa ho uburenganzira cyangwa kugira ubwisanzure aho yabuvukijwe kabone n’ubwo yaba yarahawe ibya mirenge ku ntenyo.

Umwalimu akaba n’umuhanga mu by’imitekerereze Prof. Leszek Kalakowski avuga ko: “Icyizere cy’uko ubwisanzure budakwiye kurangizwa burundu n’ukwishyira hamwe kw’abagamije guheza bamwe muri politike n’abigabanganya isi, ahubwo niyo mpamvu dukwiriye kwitegurira guhangana na byo dushingiye cyane ku myemerere y’uko dushaka ubwisanzure. […] Ntabwo ari impanuka yo kwibwira ko amateka cyangwa ingaruka z’ibyo twigomwa mu mibanire cyangwa umusaruro w’igihe gito ku buzima runaka mu byerekeye ubukungu. […] Ahubwo ubwisanzure bushinze imizi muri kamere nziza yo kuba ‘umuntu’.”

Ibihugu byo mu Burengerazuba bw’Isi, cyane cyane Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zumvikana kenshi zifatira ibihano ibihugu, ibigo by’ubucuruzi,  cyangwa se abategetsi ku giti cyabo babashinja  kubangamira ubwisanzure n’ukwishyira ukuzina kw’abo  bayobora mu nguni zitandukanye.

Nk’urugero; Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zafatiye ibihano igihugu cya Zimbabwe kubera iyo mpamvu gusa.

Ibihugu n’abategetsi bikunze kwibasirwa n’ibyo bihano –bikunze kujegeza urwego rw’ubukungu rw’ibyo bihugu – nibyo ku mugabane wa Afurika na Aziya. Ba nyiri gufatirwa ibyo bihano n’abayoboke babo bumvikana kenshi bashimangira  ko impamvu yihishe inyuma y’ifatwa ry’ibyo bihano ari iza politike (political motivated). Banarenzaho bakavuga uburyo ‘Ubwisanzure’ bwo  kuvuga icyo utekereza cyangwa se gutanga ibitekerezo, … ari ibintu byazanywe n’Abanyaburayi – bo bakabona ko ibihugu byabo bitabikeneye. Ariko uretse no kubikenera babona bidafite  icyo bimaze, ahubwo bo icyo bakeneye kandi bakwiye gushyira imbere ari ukugira iterambere mu bukungu.

Igisekeje n’uko bene aba bategetsi, mu gihe baharaniraga kugira ububasha, iturufu bashyiraga imbere kwari ukuvuga uburyo: Rubanda babujijwe ukwishyira ukizana n’ubwisanzure mu gihugu cyabo. Bati: “mu gihe twaramuka tugize ubwo bubasha ni byo bya mbere tugomba kubaha. Birihutirwa!” Rubanda na bo si ukubajya inyuma gusa ahubwo banabagwa inyuma ariko igihe bategereje cyagera bakagwa mu kantu.

Itegeko nshinga ry’U Rwanda kimwe n’ibindi bihugu byo muri Afurika, usanga riha rubanda ubwisanzure butomoye.

Mu itegeko nshinga rya Repubulika y’U Rwanda ryo muri 2003 ryavuguruwe muri 2015; mu ngingo zayo za: 37,38,39, ndetse n’ingingo ya 40 ziha uburenganzira buri Munyarwanda wese: Ubwisanzure mu mitekerereze no mu myemerere –freedom of conscience and religion; ubwisanzure bw’itangazamakuru, ubwo kugaragaza ibitekerezo n’ubwo guhabwa amakuru –freedom of press, of expression and access to information;  uburenganzira bwo kwishyira hamwe –rights of freedom of association; ndetse  n’uburenganzira bwo guteranira hamwe –rights to freedom of assembly.

Bamwe bazatubwira uburyo dukwiye guhabwa ubwisanzure mu nguni zose z’ubuzima, dusabwe kubuharanira. Uzasanga ibihugu byo mu burengerazuba bw’isi bikora uko bishoboye bigafatira ibihano ibihugu n’abantu  bagira uruhare mu kubangamira ubwisanzure bwa Rubanda. Abaharanira kugera ku butegetsi cyangwa se abarwanya Leta z’ibihugu byabo (Opposition) iturufu bakunze gushyira imbere ni uguharanira ko ngo “rubanda rubona ubwisanzure mu gihugu cyabo”. Naho abari ku butegetsi bo bagashimangira ko burya Ubwisanzure ari nk’igikoresho cyazanywe n’ibihugu byo mu Burengerazuba bw’isi mu rwego rwo kugenzura ibindi bihugu, bakemeza ko hari Demokarasi, ubwisanzure n’izindi ngingo bibereye ibihugu by’abanyaburayi hakaba n’ibereye ibihugu byabo.  Bashimangira uburyo bitandukanye gusa mu gusobanura neza itandukaniro riri hagati y’iby’abanyaburayi n’ibyacu biracyabagora!

Umuhanga mu bukungu Amartya Kumar Sen, mu gitabo yise ‘Freedom as Development’ agaragaza ko iterambere ridashoboka nta bwisanzure mu nguni zitandukanye, mu gihe abategetsi benshi b’abanyagitugu bagaragaza ko igikenewe ari iterambere naho ubwisanzure atari ngombwa.

Ese mu by’ukuri ubwisanzure ni iki? Ese muri kamere ya Muntu ‘Human nature’ nta kintu gishobora gusimbuzwa ubwisanzure? Ese ko tuzi neza ko mu gihe cyo kwiyamamaza, Abanyapolitike bavuga ibintu rubanda rukeneye kandi runashaka, kuki muri icyo gihe iteka ryose usanga  gusezeranya kuzatanga  ubwisanzure bitabava mu kanwa? Ese koko haba hari ubwisanzure bw’abo mu Burengerazuba bw’isi ndetse n’ubwisanzure bubereye Afurika n’ahandi? Ese Ubwisanzure bw’Abanyaburayi ntabwo bwabera Abanyafurika? Ese hagati y’ibivugwa n’abo mu burengerazuba bw’isi, abari guharanira kugera ku butegetsi n’abari ku butegetsi ni inde uvuga ukuri? Tuzemera ibyande tureka ibihe?

Muri iyi nyandiko ndagaruka cyane ku nyito y’ubwisanzure n’ukwishyira ukizana –freedom, ngerageze kubihuza na kamere ya Muntu ‘human nature’ ndetse na politike. Ndagenda nifashisha zimwe mu nyandiko z’abahanga mu mitekerereze na Politike (political philosophers), abahanga mu kumenya kamera za Muntu (Psychologist) nka Hannah Arendt, Epictetus n’abandi. Ndifashisha kandi n’ingero zitandukanye zo mu buzima busanzwe mu rwego rwo kumva no gusobanukirwa ibibazo byinshi  harimo n’ibyo nagiye nibaza haruguru.

Nta kintu kibaho Muntu akenera kirenze ubwisanzure. Rimwe na rimwe uzasanga hari abibeshya ko umuntu wahawe ibyangombwa nkenerwa mu buzima bwe bwa buri munsi, aba akemuye ibindi byose; ubwisanzure atari ngombwa kubuhabwa cyangwa se bati kuba warabashije guhabwa aho uzivuriza warwaye, amashuri abawe bazigamo, aho gutura heza ubwabyo birahagije kandi umutegetsi ubiguha aba akwifuriza ibyiza; fata ibyo yakugeneye maze ibindi ubireke ahubwo binabaye byiza ntuzirirwe unabibaza kuko ntabwo bikugenewe rwose!

Abambari babo na bo bakicara bagashimangira ibyo, bagasobanura uburyo kuba bigenda gutyo impamvu yabyo “rubanda rutabasha kubyumva no kubisobanukirwa”. Maze bigasa nkaho guhabwa ibikorwaremezo, uburezi n’ubuvuzi byavunjwemo ukwishyira ukizana kwabo. Gusa uko byagenda kose n’igihe byatwara icyo ari cyo cyose abadasobanukiwe neza kamere ya muntu baragaragara.

Inkuru y’imyaka 42  ya Mouhammar Gaddaffi na Libya yashyizweho  akadomo mu mwaka wa 2011; yifashishwa na benshi mu Banyafurika bashimangira uburyo abaturage bashutswe maze bakavana uwari warabahaye byose byiswe ko bakenera mu buzima none ubu bakaba bari kuririra mu myotsi. Bagereranywa na wa wundi wabonye isha itamba agata n’urwo yari yambaye!

Bavuga inkuru z’uburyo Gaddaffi yafataga neza: abarwaye, abagiye kujya mu mashuri, abagiye gushinga urugo n’ibindi bikorwa byiza byinshi bivugwa ko yakoreraga abaturage be ku myaka yamaze ku butegetsi. Ariko mu byo bavuga byose birengagiza ibyo yakoreraga umuntu wese wagaragazaga ko hari icyo betemeranywaho cyangwa  se utumva ibintu kimwe na we muri rusange; yirengagije ko nta muntu ubaho udashobora kwibeshya  cyangwa ngo akore ikosa ndetse abe yanakosorwa mu buryo bumwe cyangwa ubundi. Yaba igihangange cyangwa se rubanda rusanzwe bose kuri iyo ngingo turi bamwe.

Muri Libya, bivugwa ko rubanda rwahawe ibyiswe ‘byose’ ubutegetsi bwifashishije umutungo kamere w’igihugu n’ubwo babihawe ntibyatumye badahindukira ngo biyemeze gusaba ubwisanzure.

Hari abaseka abaturage ba Libya bavuga ko bikuye amata mu kanwa; bati: “ubundi ko mwari mufite byose mwarwanaga n’iki?”

Abavuga ibyo ntabwo nemeranya na bo rwose! Kuko mu myumvire yanjye uko byagenda kose nta kintu waha umuturage maze ngo umwime ubwisanzure, utekereze ko ibyo urimo wubaka uyu munsi bizaramba; njyewe navuga ko usa naho uba uri kubaka ku musenyi. Hari ingero nyinshi umuntu yatanga zabishimangira.

Gusa hari abibwira ko bo babigezeho ariko ukuri ni uko, umunsi uzaba umwe maze na we yibonere ko nta muntu ushobora guhindura kamere ya muntu –yo guhora iteka aharanira kugira ubwisanzure. Byatwara imyaka 42 nk’iya Gaddaffi cyangwa iri munsi yayo ntawamenya gusa ikizwi ni uko umunsi uzaba umwe akarebesha n’amaso ye –mu  gihe yagize amahirwe akaba akiriho– uburyo ibyo wavunitse wubaka bihindurwa umuyonga.

Iminsi ntisiba kutwereka ko muntu atigira ku mateka gusa uwabashije kuyigiraho, ntayirengagize akamubera akabando, yamaze gusobanukirwa neza ko ubwisanzure ari ikintu ntasimburwa muri kamere ya muntu nta n’ufite ubushobozi bwo kubihindura.

Hari abashimangira uburyo guha ubwisanzure Abanyafurika bidakwiye bitewe n’uko ngo ari ‘injiji’; bavuga ko ubahaye ubwo bwisanzure ibyo bakora wabifatisha amaboko yombi. Nyamara mu gihe cy’amatora iyo babahundagajeho amajwi ku kigero cy’ijana ku ijana, ya ingingo y’ubujiji  nta we ushobora kuyikomozaho cyangwa se na none mu gihe ba bandi biswe ‘injiji’ bari kubyina injyana yabo.

Ese uburenganzira bwo kugena ko rubanda rudakwiriye guhabwa ubwisanzure mu gihe mu itegekonshinga byitwa ko ryatowe na bo ku bwiganze bwo ku kigero cyo hejuru uzasanga riha rubanda ukwishyira ukizana ni nde ubutanga?

Abantu bafunzwe ni bo basobanukiwe neza icyo ubwisanzure ari cyo ndetse n’umuntu watekereje ko umuntu wakoze ikosa runaka agomba gufatwa agashyirwa ahantu runaka atemerewe kuva, mbese akamburwa ubwisanzure bwose bigahinduka igihano gikomeye, buri wese atinya. Ku muntu wakwibaza kuri ibi, yaganira n’umuntu usohotse muri gereza kabone n’ubwo yaba yari abayeho mu buzima buhambaye yahita asobanukirwa neza kamere ya muntu n’ubwisanzure.

Uzasanga umuntu afungiye ahantu agaburirwa neza, akabasha kureba ‘television’  akanumva radio yifuza; akarara ku buriri bwiza, buri ahantu heza cyane; mbese abayeho muri bwa buzima abantu benshi badafunze bahora barota kubamo. Ariko bene abo usanga bashimangira ko aho kubaho muri ubwo buzima ariko afunze  yarekurwa akajya kubaho ubuzima buri hasi y’ubwo ndetse akabubona bumuvunnye.

Ku muntu utekereza ko guhabwa byose ariko adafite ubwisanzure ntacyo bitwaye, burya ibyo aba avuga ntaho bitandukaniye na wa wundi uvuga ati: “uwamfunga nanjye ariko nkabaho mu buzima nk’ubwa runaka ufunze abayemo muri gereza nabyemera!”

Naho abaturage bo muri Libya bafashe iya mbere mu guharanira ko Gaddaffi yakurwa ku butegetsi  mbafata nka wa muntu uba afunze ariko abayeho mu buzima bwiza muri gereza, ariko uwamuha amahirwe yo kuba yasohoka muri gereza n’ubwo yaba agiye kubaho mu buzima buri hasi y’ubwo abayemo kandi yanavunikiye yabyemera nta gushidikanya kubera ko gusa ashaka ubwisanzure.

Mu 1969; umuhanga mu by’imitekerereze Harry Frankfurt, yagaragaje icyo yise ‘Frankfurt-style case’, yashyizeho ihame ryo kugira ubushobozi bwo kugerageza uburyo butandukanye (principles of alternative possibilities –PAD.)

Muri iri hame –PAD, Frankfurt, agaragaza ko “iteka umuntu yumva  ko yakirengera ikintu yakoze byonyine mu gihe yari kuba afite andi mahitamo.”

Aha Frankfurt, agaragaza ko mu gihe umuntu adafite ubwisanzure, atabasha kugira amahirwe yo guhitamo.

Ibi Harry Frankfurt avuga, ababaaye mu gihugu gifite ishyaka rimwe rukumbi, nta rindi bemerewe kujyamo  cyangwa mu gihe hari umuntu umwe ufite ubushobozi bwo gutanga ‘serivise’ runaka  (monopoly) ku buryo nta yandi mahitamo umuntu yagira, babizi neza.

Umuhanga muri ‘Political Philosophy’, Hannah Arendt; agaragaza ko “ubwisanzure bufite inkomoko muri politike y’Abagereki.”

Mu nyandiko ze zitandukanye yakunze kubigarukaho. Nk’inyandiko yise “Freedom and Politics”; avuga ko ubwisanzure budashobora gutandukanywa n’ibikorwa bya politike.

Kuri we, politike ikinwa na wa wundi wamaze kubona ibyangombwa nkenerwa by’ibanze. Ubwisanzure asanga ari cyo yakwita ‘raison d’etre of politics’.

Muri iyo nyandiko ye kandi akomeza ashimangira ko ubwisanzure bubashisha ubufite gukora ikintu mu buryo butandukanye kandi bigatanga umusaruro.

Muri make; abona ko ubwisanzure buba imbarutso yo kuzana “ikintu kitabagaho mbere, ikintu abantu batahabwaga, ikintu kitashoboraga kuba cyanaza mu bitekerezo by’umuntu; umuntu abivuze neza, ubwisanzure butuma habaho ikitari kizwi mbere”

Mbese mu busesenguzi bushingiye ku nyandiko ya Arendt; ubwisanzure ni imbarutso y’ubuvumbuzi ku babuhawe, bukaba n’impamvu ituma politike ibaho.

Epictetus –slave philosophers, yanditse ku bwisanzure ashimangira ko “umuntu ufite ubwisanzure ari umuntu ubaho uko abyifuza.

Mu gihe umuhanga Aristotle mu nyandiko ye ‘politics’ usangamo interuro igira iti: “Ubwisanzure bisobanuye gukora icyo umuntu akunda”

Ubusobanuro bw’ Ubwisanzure benshi bahurizaho ni uko ari ukugira uburenganzira bwo gukora, kuvuga, cyangwa no gutekereza uko ushaka.

Ubwisanzure ni ikintu umuntu wese aho ava akagera agomba kugira. Ku muntu ubufite ahora iteka aharanira ko yabuhorana naho wa wundi wabwimwe ahora ashakashaka inzira zatuma abona ubwo bwisanzure.

Hari abumva ko guha rubanda byose ariko ugerageje kutemeranywa nawe ukamwereka uko intama zambarwa, abasigaye na bo ntubahe bwa bwisanzure bikamara igihe kinini ugenza utyo ukageraho ukiyizera ariko n’ubwo wakizera ko wabimye ubwisanzure na bo ntibagire icyo babikoraho, jya  urya uri menge kuko umunsi uzaba umwe bakuvudukane icyuya kikurenge nukinisha kwinangira bakwereke ko koko burya uko uyu munsi umuturage yagusingiza akaguha ay’urufaya ari na ko yabiha abandi, ni kimwe kandi nk’uko yavugirije induru abakubanjirirje mu gihe atabahaye ibyo bashakaga  ari na ko nawe bazaguha urwamo mu gihe utigiye ku mateka!

Ariko akenshi ni umutegetsi ukwiriye kwihitiramo na bo akabahitiramo neza, abaha ukwishyira ukizana kuko  ntawe nzi wagerageje ibitandukanye na byo ngo bimuhire ijana ku rindi kandi buriya si rubanda  rubyungukiramo gusa kuko bo ubwabo n’ababakomokaho na bo babyungukiramo.

Uwavuga ko guha umuturage ubwisanzure aho kumukandagira ku gakanu ari ukwiteganyiriza mu gihe kirambye; mu gihe ukora ibitandukanye n’ibyo navuga ko ari ukwiteganyiriza ibibi utitaye ku byo yagezeho cyangwa azageraho ntabwo yaba yibeshye.

Guhabwa Ukwishyira ukizana si imbabazi zigirirwa rubanda ahubwo ni uburenganzira bwabo kandi nta n’ufite ububasha bwo kubavutsa ubwo burenganzira kuko ubwisanzure na Muntu ni ibintu bidatandukanywa.

Uretse n’ikiremwamuntu, n’uko tutabasha kuvugana n’inyamaswa buriya dushobora gusanga zidashimishwa no guhora ku kiziriko, kugenerwa ibyo zirya, kutagira uburenganzira ku musaruro wazo n’ibindi.

Niba inyamaswa zabasha kwifuza kugira ubwisanzure, ubwo Umunyafurika yaba ari injiji bingana gute ku buryo atagakwiye gusaba no guhabwa ubwisanzure?

Ibyifuzo bya muntu byo kuba yabaho yishyira akizana biri mu bintu by’ibanze byamusunikiye guharanira ubwigenge.

 

UMUSEKE.RW

10 Ni byo bitekerezo bimaze gutangwa

  • “Ibyifuzo bya muntu byo kuba yabaho yishyira akizana biri mu bintu by’ibanze byamusunikiye guharanira ubwigenge.” Kabone nubwo waba uhaze cyangwa wicwa ninzara. Ubwo burenganzira ni kimwe no guhumeka no kubaho. Ni ntayegayezwa muri buri kiremwa muntu.

    • Ibyuvuze nibyo ntabwo Pasteur Bizimungu yahunze ingoma ya Hbyarimana ahunga ubukene, Kajeguhakwa nabandi utarondora biyomoye kuri Habyarimana muri 1989-1990 intambara igiye gutangira kandi mbere bari inshuti ze.Iyo burya yavugaga abagambanyi yabaga azi abo avuga. Gusa yari classe ntabwo yavugaga ibigarasha, ibisambo nayandi mazina yinyoni utabara kugeza ubu. Genda mwene Ntibazilikana.

  • Uyu mujene utwandikiye iki kinyamateka reka muhe utubazo 2 yibazaho:
    1)iyo umuntu yishwe na polisi ari mu maboko yayo, mu Rwanda bigenda bite, naho mu gihugu nka Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika bigenda bite?
    2)iyo abaturage bagiye mu muhanda bamagana ubusumbane bukabije cyangwa basaba uburenganzira bwabo, nka kuriya ba gilets jaunes babikoze amezi n’amezi; mu gihugu nka kiriya bigenda gute, naho mu Rwanda bigenda/byagenda gute?
    Uyu mujene nabanze akure isomo rigufi mu ngero nk’izi zoroshye, abone kutujyana muri dissertation academique iri mu kirere cyane.

  • Nkuko Mberakurora abivuze iyi nkuru ni dissertation académique ntago ari iyo gushyira mu kinyamakuru kuko burya mu ishuri ni théories gusa. Iyi nkuru rero kereka niba ari nka prof waruyandikiye naho mu binyamakuru bisomwa narubanda haba hakenewe inkuru zorohera buri muntu wese kuzumva bitamusabye gupfunda imitwe atekereza cyane. Igitekerezo washatse kugira ni cyiza ariko ntago kijyanjye na audience cyari kigenewe. Ubutaha uzandike inkuru uyihuza n’ubuzima bwa buri munsi bw’abanyarwanda apana gukoresha literature review itajyanye n’imibereho yacu!

  • @mberakurora ubajije amafuti pe. Iyo umuntu apfuye baramushyingura. Ku cya 2 ibyo bya julet jaune nta biba iwacu. Kubaza uko byagenda biramutse bibaye ninko kubaza ngo papa wawe atakubyaye byagenda bite?
    Naho ibyo wita dissertation academic zo mu kirere ni ukuri ku buzima bwawe yagerageje gushyira mu nyandiko. Kuba utabyumva ni nk’uko bigoye gusobanurira umwana wa 3years ko kugira ngo biscuit iboneka hagomba kuba umuhinzi wiyuha icyuya akamara amezi ategereje ko ingano, soya byera, bigashyirwa mu ruganda rwa miliyari zamafaranga. Iyo atanze igiceri cya 100 frs akumva igisukari cya biscuit affaire termine. Ntatekereza ku mvune yumuhinzi ninzira binyuramo. Uyu mwanditsi arasobanura agaciro ko kwishyira ukizana.

    • Ibise avuze birangwa iwacu cyangwa koko nkuko yabivuze nama théories gusa? Reka no kuvuga Ingabire na Me Ntaganda mvuge abana ba Rwigara, mvuge Niyitegeka,Mushayidi mvuge Barafinda ibyo utumvamo nibiki?

    • Titi, turavuga bimwe mu buryo butandukanye. Umwana ukeneye biscuit cyangwa uyibonye akayirya umubwira ibyuya by’umuhinzi w’ingano ngo bimumarire iki? It is not his/her concern.

    • Titi, mu Rwanda abantu nzi baherutse kwigaragambya ku mugaragaro mu bintu bitari muri gahunda ya Leta, ni abanyeshuri bari banze kwiga igifaransa muri kaminuza i Butare. Uribuka uko byabagendekeye?

  • Cyuzuzo iyi nyandiko ye ni nziza muri rusange, arandika nk’umuntu ufite convictions zifatika atari ukwibonekeza. Ariko nakora indi ubutaha, azige kujya ayicamo ingingo nyamukuru zifite sous-titres zerekana mu ncamake ibikubiyemo, zibanjirijwe na introduction isobanura izo ngingo z’ingenzi ziri buvugweho, n’ikigamijwe muri rusange. Birushaho kuyobora umusomyi no kumwongera inyota yo gusoma byose bitamubanye birebire cyane . Byongera kandi concentration y’umusomyi, ndetse hakaba n’ushobora gusoma igice kimwe kubera igihe gito, yakenera gusoma ikindi akaba azi aho yari yagejeje. Na ziriya citations ze akuzuza references zazo kugira ngo uwo zishituye ajye kwishakira inyandiko ivuzwe arebe ibikubiyemo ku buryo burambuye. Internet yaragikemuye. Intambwe isaba ubutwari budasanzwe asigaje gutera, ni ukujya agera ku mwanzuro yafashe akanya ko kwerekeza ibitekerezo bye kuri contexte local (ijya kurisha ihera ku rugo!). Ariko ashobora kubikora akahasiga agatwe! Niyo mpamvu n’abihaye Imana abenshi ubu biyigishiriza iby’i Yeruzalemu no mu bindi bice bivugwa muri Bibliya cyangwa Korowani, bagera kuby’iwabo bakaruma bahuha. Ni nayo mpamvu ibyinshi mubinyamakuru byibanda ku myidagaduro no kunenga za federations z’imikino cyangwa abayobozi b’ibanze, bagera ku bibazo by’ingutu bakaruca bakarumira. Aiko nawe aracyari muto nabe aretse kwiyahura, ibiharamagara bibanze bitazure inzira bitange n’ibitambo!!

  • Ibinibyo bita ubusesenguzi bwuje ubuhanga.Urubyiruko rwize neza kdi rufite imitekerereze nkiyi rurakenewe kwisi hose,nibura uwavugako uri umunyabwenge byakwemerwa na benshi.Nguyu umuyobozi ukwiriye,umunyamakurumwiza kdi numusesenguzi wa politiki isi ikeneye.Ngushimye cyane ugeze kurugero rwa LIBYE ya Ghadafi.

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