Umunsi Mpuzamahanga w’Umurimo: Hari ibibazo byinshi bidafite ibisubizo uyu munsi, ariko hari icyizere - UMUSEKE
  • 04/06/2020 9:04 10

Umunsi Mpuzamahanga w’Umurimo: Hari ibibazo byinshi bidafite ibisubizo uyu munsi, ariko hari icyizere

Igitekerezo ni icya Gasore Séraphin, Umunyamabanga Mukuru Wungirije wa COTRAF-RWANDA n’Umuhuzabikorwa wa Synergie-Zamuka

Buri mwaka, ku itariki ya mbere Gicurasi, mu bihugu bitandukanye by’isi hizihizwa Umunsi w’Abakozi. Ni umunsi hirya no hino ku isi abakozi n’inzego zibashinzwe basubiza amaso inyuma bakareba intambwe bamaze gutera kugira ngo bongere barebe izigikeneye guterwa. Uyu mwaka wa 2020, Umunsi w’Abakozi wizihijwe mu bihe bidasanzwe kubera Koronavirusi (Coronavirus).

Mu Rwanda abenshi batunzwe n’imirimo iciriritse kuri uyu munsi w’abakozi benshi bari mu ngo kubera Coronavirus (Photo archives UMUSEKE)

Ibi bihe bidasanzwe, abahanga mu by’ubukungu bemeza ko nta bindi wabigereranya na byo hafi aha, uretse kujya gushakira mu ntangiro z’ikinyejana cya 20. Mu mwaka w’1929, ni bwo hatangiye icyiswe « the great depression, la grande dépression », cyangwa ihungabana rikomeye ry’ubukungu ryo mu myaka y’1930.

Icyo gihe ifaranga ryataye agaciro ku buryo budasanzwe, ubushomeri buriyongera bikabije, ubukene busakara mu bantu benshi. Byasabye ko haba amavugurura akomeye cyane mu by’ubukungu n’imari kugira ngo ku isi, cyane cyane muri Leta zunze Ubumwe za Amerika aho byari byatangiriye, abantu bashobore gusohoka muri ibyo bibazo.

Mu Ugushyingo 1932, Abanyamerika batoye Franklin Delano Roosevelt atsinze  Herbert Hoover wari umaze imyaka ine yarananiwe kubonera umuti ibibazo igihugu cyari gihanganye na byo. Bamwe bamwitaga « Mister Do Nothing » (Bwana Ntugiricyukora). Franklin atangira kuyobora mu kwa mbere 1933, ubukungu bw’igihugu bwari ku butaka, ubushomeri buri ku kigero cya 25%. Hagombaga igisubizo. Ni gutyo yazanye icyo yise « New Deal », uburyo bushya bwo gusubiza ibintu ku murongo. Yashoboye kuzana ibisubizo ku buryo Abanyamerika babimushimiye bakamutorera manda eshatu, kandi ubusanzwe nta we urenza ebyiri.

 

Ibihe biri imbere ntibyoroshye na gato

Abahanga mu by’ubukungu bemeza ko ibihe biri imbere bizagora ibihugu byinshi n’abaturage babyo. Ibihugu bizazahara kurusha ibindi ni ibisanzwe bifite ubukungu bujegajega, ibisanzwe bifite ubukungu bushingiye ku kintu kimwe cyangwa bibiri nka peteroli, amabuye y’agaciro, ubukerarugendo, n’ibindi.

Izahara ry’ubukungu ni impamvu ikomeye y’ukwiyongera k’ubushomeri, ubushomeri bugatera ubukene mu miryango, ubukene mu miryango bugatuma abantu badahaha ibikorwa n’inganda cyangwa ngo bakenere serivisi zitandukannye, kuko baba badashoboye kuzishyura. Ibyo bituma ubukungu burushaho kuzamba.

Ikindi kandi ni uko Umuryango Mpuzamahanga w’Ubuzima (WHO/OMS) wemeza ko Koronavirusi ishobora kuzakomeza kubana n’abantu mu bihugu bitandukannye. Bikaba bivuga ko tutazashobora kongera kubaho nk’uko twabagaho mbere ya Covid-19. Ndetse hari n’abahanga bemeza ko kubera imihindagurikire y’ikirere, isi igomba kwitega ibiza bindi by’ubukana nk’ubwa Covid-19. Byumvikana neza ko ibihe biri imbere bitoroshye, gusa umuhanga w’Umunyarwanda yaravuze ngo “Ahari intwari ntihabura intwaro”.

 

Ni iyihe “New Deal” y’Abanyarwanda?

Twebwe Abanyarwanda ntabwo tuzakenera gutora Roosvelt wacu, kuko dusanganywe Perezida Kagame ubishoboye, imvugo ye ikaba ingiro. Kuva ibi bihe by’amage byatangira, Leta y’u Rwanda yerekanye ko ishoboye mu gufata ibyemezo bya ngombwa mu kurengera no kurinda Abanyarwanda. Mu kiganiro yagiranye n’abanyamakuru mu buryo bw’ikoranabuhanga ku itariki ya 27 Mata 2020, Perezida Kagame yongeye guhumuriza Abanyarwanda. Yemeje ko ibihe biri imbere bikomeye, ariko ko Abanyarwanda banyuze no mu bindi bihe bikomeye, kandi bakabivamo gitwari. Bizasaba imbaraga no gushyira hamwe uburyo bwose dufite, n’aho bizakenerwa tuziyambaza inshuti, uko byagenda kose tuzikura mu bihe bikomeye biri imbere.

Buri Munyarwanda arasabwa gushyiraho ake, twese tugahuriza hamwe imbaraga kugira ngo tuzikure gitwari mu bibazo bidutegereje, tutitanye bamwana. Iyo ni yo izaba New Deal y’Abanyarwanda, buri wese mu gice cy’ubukungu n’imibereho y’abaturage aherereyemo no mu nshingano izo ari zo zose afite. Leta ikazaba ifite inshingano yo gushyira ibintu mu murongo rusange no kubiha icyerekezo.

 

Byifashe bite ku bakozi?

Muri iyi minsi ibikorwa byinshi by’ubukungu byahagaze, n’imirimo myinshi yarahagaze. Ku itariki ya 22 Werurwe 2020, ni bwo Abanyarwanda basabwe kuguma mu rugo hagasohoka gusa abatanga serivisi za ngombwa kimwe n’abagiye kuzishaka. Hadaciye kabiri, imiryango myinshi cyane y’Abanyarwanda yatangiye gutaka inzara. Ni ibintu byasobanutse neza, kubera ko imiryango myinshi cyane irya kubera ko hari umwe cyangwa benshi mu bayigize baba basohotse bakajya gukora bagatahana igihembo cy’uwo munsi bakagihahamo ibyo kurarira, n’ejo n’ejobundi bikaba uko. Abo ba nyakabyizi, kenshi bakora mu mirimo itanditswe (informal sector) ikoresha abagera kuri 90% by’Abanyarwanda bakora, kubera gutahana amafaranga make cyane, ntibashobora kuzigama, kuko baba batanashoboye kubona iby’ibanze bakeneye byose.

Uretse n’abo ba nyakabyizi, n’abandi bakozi bitwa ko bakora mu mirimo yanditse (formal sector), bakabona umushahara wa buri kwezi, na bo bahembwa kenshi intica ntikize, bituma na bo kenshi badashobora kugira icyo bazigama. Muri iyi minsi y’amage, ibyo byiciro byombi by’abakozi bisa n’aho bibayeho kimwe, mu ngorane zikomeye.

 

Hazakorwa iki ku bibazo by’umurimo no kurwanya ubushomeri?

Na nyuma y’ibi bihe, abakozi benshi cyane bafite ubwoba ko bizabagora kongera kubona akazi. Abahanga mu by’ubukungu bavuga ko ibigo byinshi bishobora kuzisanga mu gihombo cyatuma bitongera kubyutsa umutwe, kereka habaye inkunga ya Leta mu by’ubukungu: inguzanyo zitagira inyungu cyangwa ku nyungu nto cyane, uburyo bwo kuzibona na bwo bukoroshywa, koroherezwa mu by’imisoro n’amahoro, n’ibindi.

N’ibigo bizashobora kweguka, bizaba byarazahaye ku buryo bizasaba igihe cyo kongera kwiyubaka. Ubukene mu miryango na bwo buzatuma ku isoko ibintu bihahwa biba bike, bikazatuma inganda n’ibigo bitanga serivisi bifata igihe kirekire cyo kongera kuzanzamuka. Izo zose ni impamvu zituma ubushomeri bushobora kuzakomeza kuramba, no ku bafite akazi, hakazaba igishuko cyo kuzahemba intica ntikize.

Ibi byago byazanwe na Covid-19 ntawagize uruhari kurusha abandi mu kubizana, bityo akaba agomba kubihanirwa. Abakozi na bo, nta ruhari na ruto bagize kugira ngo ibintu bizabe byarazambye. Nta mpamvu y’uko bazasa n’aho ari bo babiryozwa, ubuzima bwabo n’ubw’imiryango yabo bugakomeza kumera nabi.

 

Hakorwa iki rero?

Bwa mbere nyine nta kwitana bamwana, tugomba twese gushyira hamwe imbaraga n’ibitekerezo byacu byose. Ntabwo igisubizo kiri mu kwirukana cyangwa kugabanya abakozi. Bagenzi banjye bayobora amasendika bagize icyo bavuga mu minsi ishize, bavuze ko imishyikirano hagati y’abakoresha n’abakozi ari ngombwa, ndetse igomba kwiyongera kurusha uko byahoze. Ni byo rwose.

Gusa Leta igomba gushyiraho akayo, ndetse kanini. Imibereho myiza y’abaturage bayo ni cyo gisobanuro cyonyine cy’imbaraga Leta ishyira mu byo ikora byose. Leta rero yagombye kuzakora ibintu bibiri by’ingenzi ku ikubitiro: guha ibigo by’imirimo inkunga mu by’ubukungu bizaba bikeneye no kubyorohereza mu by’imisoro n’amahoro;  ikanashyiraho amabwiriza ajyanye no guhabwa iyo nkunga mu by’ubukungu harimo icy’ibanze cyo kutirukana, kutagabanya abakozi cyangwa kubagabanyiriza imishahara n’ubundi yari isanzwe ari intica ntikize.

Izo ngamba ebyiri zatuma ibintu bijya gusubira nk’uko byari bimeze ku bakozi mbere ya Covid-19. Byafasha imiryango myinshi cyane y’Abanyarwanda kutazahara kandi bigafasha n’ubukungu kuzanzamuka kuko iyo miryango yaba ihaha umusaruro w’inganda n’ibigo bitanga serivisi.

Gusa na none ibyo ntibyaba bihagije na gato. Aya mage twashyizwemo na Koronavirusi agomba kutwigisha. No muri 1933 n’imyaka yakurikiyeho igihe cya New Deal, byabaye ngombwa gukora ku buryo imishahara y’abakozi izamuka kugira ngo bashobore guhahira imiryango yabo bitume n’ibyo inganda zikora bibona isoko. Muri ibi bihe byacu, bizaba ngombwa gutekereza ku kuzamura imishahara y’abakozi hagendewe ku gushyiraho imishahara fatizo mu byiciro bitandukanye by’imirimo, nk’uko biteganywa n’ingingo ya 68 y’Itegeko rigenga umurimo mu Rwanda No 66/2018 ryo kuwa 30 Kanama 2018. Ibyo bizashingira ku mpamvu eshatu z’ingenzi cyane: guteza imbere isoko ry’imbere mu gihugu, gushoboza imiryango y’abakozi kwiteza imbere koko no kwizigamira, guha agaciro gakwiriye imbaraga n’ubwenge by’abakozi b’Abanyarwanda.

1.Mu gihe isi yose izaba yarazahajwe n’iki cyorezo kandi itinya ko cyagaruka cyangwa ko hari ibindi bisa na cyo byakongera kutwibasira, ntabwo amahanga azihutira gufasha ibihugu biri mu nzira y’amajyambere nk’uko byari bisanzwe kuko bizaba byihugiyeho. Mu gihe ubukungu bw’abantu ku giti cyabo bwahungabanye bikomeye hirya no hino ku isi, ubukerarugendo bw’abanyamahanga buzafata igihe mbere yo kongera kugera ku rugero bwariho mbere ya Covid-19. Ni ngombwa rero gushoboza abanyagihugu kuzamura ubukungu bwabo bahaha bakanazigama, kandi bagashishikarizwa kwitabira ubukererugendo mu gihugu. Ibyo ntibyashoboka hatabayeho imishahara fatizo.

2.Abakozi nibashobora kubonera imiryango yabo iby’ibanze ikeneye: kurya, kuryama, kwiga, kwivuza, kwambara; bagashobora kugira icyo basagura, bazatekereza kwiteza imbere no kuzigama. Kuzigama bifite inyungu nyinshi mu bukungu bw’imiryango n’ubw’igihugu. Ubushobozi bwo kwiteza imbere bujyana n’ubwo kuzigama butuma gahunda za Leta zishyirwa mu bikorwa uko bikwiriye kandi ibihe by’amage byaba bibaye, abakozi n’imiryango yabo ntibahite bagwa mu bukene. Ibyo ni byo byitwa “social protection”, aho umukozi afatanyije na Leta bateganyiriza imiryango ubu no mu bihe bizaza.

3.Guha agaciro imbaraga n’ubwenge by’abakozi b’Abanyawanda. Nta wundi uzazamura u Rwanda uretse Abanyarwanda. Icyo abakozi b’Abanyarwanda bagomba kucyumva ariko n’ababakoresha bakakibubahira. Umukozi agomba gukora azirikana ko arimo gutanga umusanzu we mu kubaka igihugu, akitanga kugira ngo umusaruro w’ikigo cye wiyongere kandi ube mwiza kurushaho, bityo ikigo n’igihugu bigatera imbere kuko ariho uburenganzira n’agaciro ke bishingira. Abakoresha na bo ntibagomba gufata abakozi nk’abaje guhaha gusa, bagomba kubabona nk’abafatanyabikorwa. Uwo mwuka mwiza urangwa n’ubwumvikane no gushyikirana ni wo wungura buri wese mu gihe kirambye.

Koronavirus ishobora kuzaba umuturanyi wacu twese igihe kirekire. Ni umwanya ku bakozi no kubakoresha, bafatanyije n’inzego za Leta bireba, kuzarushaho kwita ku buzima n’umutekano ku kazi. Bityo hakazafatwa ingamba za ngombwa zo kurushaho kurinda abakozi kandi zikazahyirwa koko mu bikorwa.

Nta bundi buryo tuzasohoka mu bibazo bikomeye tuzaba twarashyizwemo n’iki cyorezo uretse gushyira hamwe imbaraga n’ubwenge byacu byose, buri wese, harimo n’abakozi bo mu ngeri zose, agashobozwa kuzatanga umusanzu we atizigamye. Umunsi mwiza w’abakozi n’ubwo wizihijwe mu bihe bidasanzwe, mu gihe hibazwa ibibazo byinsi ariko bishobora kubonerwa ibisubizo mu minsi iri imbere, twese dushyize hamwe.

Gasore Séraphin, Umunyamabanga Mukuru Wungirije wa COTRAF-RWANDA n’Umuhuzabikorwa wa Synergie-Zamuka (Photo Igihe)

Igitekerezo ni icya Gasore Séraphin, Umunyamabanga Mukuru Wungirije wa COTRAF-RWANDA n’Umuhuzabikorwa wa Synergie-Zamuka

Na we watanga ibitekerezo byawe utwandikira kuri email: info@umuseke.rw/ haangelo9@gmail.com

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