Waruzi Igituma ubutayu bubaho ? – UMUSEKE
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Waruzi Igituma ubutayu bubaho ?

Ubutayu ni ahantu ku isi hamara igihe kitari gito hatagwa imvura, ibi bikaba bidasobanura ko hava izuba ryinshi gusa, kuko ubutayu budaterwa n’izuba ryinshi. Usanga nk’ubutayu bwa Antarctika burangwamo ubukonje buruta ahandi hose ku isi.

Ubutayu (Ubugaragwa mu Kirundi) ni ahantu haba hamaze imyaka ahenshi ibarirwa mu magana hatagwa imvura, ku buryo usanga, ibimera ari imbonekarimwe.

Abahanga bavuga ko ngo babyita ko hari ubutayu iyo imvura ibarirwa munsi ya mm250 ku mwaka. Aha iwacu usanga hari n’aho imvura ibarirwa muri mm2500.

Kuri myinshi mu imigabane yo ku isi uhasanga ubutayu :

Ku mugabane wa Afrika hagaragara ubutayu bubiri umuntu yavuga ko bunatubutse.

Ubutayu bwa sahara bugizwe n’umucanga (Photo internet)

Ubutayu bwa sahara bugizwe n’umucanga (Photo internet)

Sahara : Ni agace gashyushye cyane kari ku buso bukwirakwiye mu gice cy’amajyaruguru ya Afrika kuva ku Nyanja ya Atlanika kugera ku mugabane wa Aziya kugeza mu gihugu cya Mongolie. Ubutayu bwa Sahara bufite ubuso bungana na km2 9 400 000, (ni nka Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika yose). Ku mugabane wa Afrika usanga Sahara ikwiriye ku buso bw’ibihugu 10 utabariyemo ibikorwaho n’udusigisigi twayo : Sahel. Sahara uzayisanga muri Maroc, Algérie, Tunisie, Libye, Misiri, Soudan, Tchad, Niger, Mali, Mauritanie n’igihugu cya Sahara y’I Burengerazuba.

Bimwe mu bisigazwa by’ibinyabuzima nk’abantu, inyamaswa n’ibimera biboneka muri ubu ubutayu bwa Sahara byerekana ko ubu butayu bumaze imyaka isaga 7 000 000 yose bubayeho.

Namib : Ni ubutayu bwabayeho kuva kera cyane mbere y’ubundi bwose ku isi kuko abashakashatsi berekanye ko bumaze imyaka 55 000 000 yose.

Ubutayu bwa Namib bugaragara mu gice cy’amajyepfo y’i Burengerazuba bwa Namibie. Ubu butayu buri ku buso bungana na km2 80 900

Gobi : Ni agace gaherereye mu majyaruguru ya’igihugu cy’Ubushinwa na Mongoli. Gobi ifite ubuso bungana km2 1 300 000. N’ubwo ubundi butayu buzwiho kuba bugizwe n’umucanga, ubutayu bwa Gobi bwo bufite umwihariko wo kuba ari ubuso bugizwe n’ibibuye gusa.

ubutayu bwa gobi bugizwe n’ibibuye (Photo internet)

ubutayu bwa gobi bugizwe n’ibibuye (Photo internet)


 

Mojaves : Ni ubutayu bugaragara mu burengerazuba bwa USA mu majyepho ya Leta ya Califoriya. Ubu butayu bukwiriye ku buso bungana na km2 40 000.

Karahari : Ifata igice kimwe cya Namibie ariko ubu butayu bwo bukanambukiranya bukagera no muri Botswana. Karahari iri ku buso bungana na km² 900 000.

Atacama : Ni ubutayu bugaragara mu gihugu cya Chili. Ubu butayu bukaba ari na bwo kugeza ubu bwaciye agahigo ko kuba aribwo bumaze igihe kirekire butagwamo imvura. Ubushakashatsi bwerekana ko ubu butayu bugwamo imvura inshuro hagati 1-4 mu kinyejana.

Hari n’ubundi bwitwa Vallée de la Mort muri Californiya ho muri Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika bungana na km² 13 600 ndetse n’ubundi.

Imvano z’ubutayu

Ubusanzwe ubutayu buterwa n’ibintu bitandukanye ariko dukurikije byinshi mu byavuye mu bushakashatsi dusanga ahanini ubutayu buterwa n’imiyaga yo mu nyanja nini « Les courents marins ». Aho usanga akenshi iyi miyaga iza ikagonga inkuta z’imigabane maze amazi agahita asa n’ayikatisha akayihindurira icyerekezo.

Ubwoko bw’imiyaga itera ubutayu

Muri iyi miyaga habamo ikonje n’ishyushye. Ikonje, niyo igira ururhare cyane mu guteza ubutayu ku migabane. Iyi miyaga iba mu mazi gusa.

Ngo ubutayu bwa Sahara buterwa n’umuyaga ukonje witwa «Gulf stream» naho ubutayu bwa Karahali na Namib bugaterwa n’uwitwa «Courent de Benguela.» Bwinshi mu butayu bugaragara muri leta ya Californiya ho muri USA ngo buterwa n’umuyaga ukoja witwa « Courent de Californie.» Naho bwa butayu bwa Atacama buzwiho kuba butagaragaramo n’urume na ruke nibura nk’ikimenyetso cy’amazi, buterwa n’umuyaga ukonje witwa «Courent de Humboldt.»

Imiyaga itera ubutayu ni iy’ubururu

Imiyaga itera ubutayu ni iy’ubururu

Ubusanzwe imvura igwa ku butaka bwo ku migabane y’isi iba ikomotse ahanini ku izuba ryacanye ku mazi yo mu nyanja maze hakazamuka umwuka ushyushye umuyaga wahuhaho nyuma na wo ugahinduka amazi. Nibwo uzasanga imvura iguye.

Mu by’ukuri rero ngo iyo umuyaga uje uba uhuha kuva ku buso bw’amazi kugeza hejuru aho ibicu bitanga imvura biba biri. Ni ukuvuga ngo iyo izuba ricanye ku buso bw’inyanja ya Atlantique, umwuka ushushye urazamuka ukajya mu kirere. Uyu umwuka wo mu nyanja ya Atlantique urazamuka noneho ugakenera ko hari umuyaga usanzwe uwuhuha.

Ubwo rero ku byerekeye imvura yakagombye kugwa mu butayu bwa Sahara umuyaga wa Gulf Stream uraza ugahuha umwuka ukonje wo mu nyanja ya Atlantika ukagenda ugana mu burengerazuba bw’amajyepfo y’isi ntihigere haboneka utanga ibicu hejuru y’ubutayu bwa Afrika, Sahara. Bityo hagahora umwuma udashira.

Mu butayu bwo mu majyepfo ya Afrika na byo ni nk’uko, mu burengerazuba bwa Amerika muri Californiya no muri Atacama muri ho Chili ni cyo kimwe. Mbese usanga ubutayu bwose buri ahagana hagati y’imirongo mbariroy’isi, «Tropiques» bwose bufite impamvu imwe isa n’iy’ubutyu bwa Sahara.

Muri Sahara usanga hari n’aho ubushyuhe burenga degre 50 ku manywa bukagera kuri 60 atari buri munsi ariko. Nko muri Libya ahitwa El Azizia usanga ho ubushyuhe buri no hejuru ya 60 ku buryo hari n’ubwo bwigeze no kugera kuri degere 66° mu mwaka w’1922.

Sahara ni bwo butayu bugaragara mu bitabo bitandukanye ko ari bwo butayu bufite ubushyuhe burenze urugero, usibye ko hari n’ahayigwa mu ntege nk’ubutayu bwitwa Valle de la Mort muri Amerika, bwigeze kugeza ku bushyuhe bungana na degre 65.6 mu mwaka w’1913.

Uko ubu butayu buba bushyushye ku manywa kandi ngo ni na ko bigenda nijoro. Ngo niba ku manywa ubushyuhe bwageze kuri degre 30 nijoro zizagera kuri 30 munsi ya 0. Ubwo nyine byumvikane ko nka ha handi twabonye hagera kuri degre 60 z’ubushyuhe ku manywa nijoro bigera kuri 60 munsi ya zeru.

Mu by’ukuri rero ntabwo ubutayu buterwa n’izuba ahubwo ubutayu ni bwo butera izuba gutwika kuko ntakiritangiira kiba gihari nk’uko twabibonye. Ubutayu buterwa n’imiyaga ahanini yo munyanja zitandukanye nk’uko wabyisomeye.

DUKUZUMUREMYI Noël.
Umuseke.com

 

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